Resources On Science (Creation & Evolution), Genesis, and the Bible

(Compiled by David P. Craig, Revised August 22, 2022 – Note some books are in more than one category;  Books with an asterisk “*” = Highly Recommended)

Adam and Eve

  • Caneday, Ardel B., ed. Four Views on the Historical Adam
  • Collins, C. John. Did Adam and Eve Really Exist? Who They Were And Why You Should Care.
  • *Howe, Thomas A. A Critique of William Lane Craigs In Quest of the Historical Adam.
  • *Mortenson, Terry. Searching for Adam: Genesis & the Truth About Man’s Origin.

Artificial Intelligence (Transhumanism)

  • Lennox, John. 2084: Artificial Intelligence and The Future of Humanity.
  • Marks, Robert J. Non-Computable You: What You Do That Artificial Intelligence Never Will.
  • Rana, Franz and Kenneth Samples, et al. Humans 2.0: Scientific, Philosophical, and Theological Perspectives on Transhumanism.
  • Simmons, M.D. Geoffrey. Are We Here To Recreate Ourselves?


  • DeYoung, Donald and John C. Whitcomb. Our Created Moon: Earths Fascinating Neighbor.
  • Faulkner, Danny R. The Expanse of Heaven: Where Creation & Astronomy Intersect.
  • *Gonzalez, Guillermo, and Jay W. Richards. The Privileged Planet: How Our Place In The Cosmos Is Designed For Discovery.
  • Humphreys, D. Russell. Starlight & Time: Solving The Puzzle Of Distant Starlight In A Young Universe.
  • Jastrow, Robert. God and The Astronomers.
  • Lisle, Jason. The Stargazer’s Guide to the Night Sky.
  • Lisle, Jason. Taking Back Astronomy: The Heavens Declare Creation.

Believers (Christians and Theists) Who Are Scientists

  • Ashton, John F., editor. On The Seventh Day: Forty Scientists and Academics Explain Why They Believe in God.
  • Ashton, John and Michael Westcott, eds. The Big Argument: Does God Exist? Twenty-Four Scholars Explore How Science, Archaeology, and Philosophy Haven’t Disproved God.
  • Ashton, John F., editor. Why Fifty Scientists Choose to Believe in Creation.
  • Barrett, Eric C., and David Fisher, eds. Scientists Who Believe: 21 Tell Their Own Stories.
  • Bergman, Jerry and Doug Sharp. Persuaded by the Evidence.
  • Bergman, Jerry. SCIENCE IS THE DOORWAY TO THE CREATOR: Nobel Laureates, Eminent Scientists and Others Who Reject Orthodox Darwinism.
  • Ell, Douglas. Counting To God: A Personal Journey Through Science To Belief.
  • *Flew, Anthony with Roy Abraham Varghese. There is a God: How The Worlds Most Notorious Atheist Changed His Mind.
  • Garte, Sy. The Works Of His Hands: A Scientist’s Journey from Atheism to Faith.
  • Guillen, Michael. Believing Is Seeing: A Physicist Explains How Science Shattered His Atheism and Revealed the Necessity of Faith.
  • Guillen, Michael. Can A Smart Person Believe in God?
  • McDonald, Julie. From Evolutionist to Creationist: The Journey of Colorado River Guide, Tom Vail (Great Christians You Should Know)
  • Morris, Henry. Men of Science, Men of God.
  • O’Connell, Michael R. Finding God In Science: The Extraordinary Evidence For The Soul And Christianity, A Rocket Scientists Gripping Odyssey.
  • Robinson, Stephen and Victoria Lim. Who Is God Really? Two Scientists Discuss Their Faith
  • Roth, Ariel A. Science Discovers God: Seven Convincing Lines of Evidence For His Existence.
  • Schoeder, Gerald L. God According to God: A Physicist Proves We’ve Been Wrong About God All Along.
  • Stafford, Tim. The Adam Quest: Eleven Scientists Explore the Divine Mystery of the Human Race.
  • *Strobel, Lee. The Case for a Creator: A Journalist Investigates Scientific Evidence That Points Toward God.
  • Thomas, Neil. Taking Leave of Darwin: A Longtime Agnostic Discovers the Case for Design.


  • *Axe, Douglas. Undeniable: How Biology Confirms Our Intuition That Life Is Designed.
  • Davis, Percival and Dean H. Kenyon. Of Pandas and People: The Central Question of Biological Origins (Second Edition).
  • Dembski, William A., and Jonathan Wells. The Design of Life: Discovering Signs of Intelligence in Biological Systems.
  • Denton, Michael J. Destiny: How The Laws Of Biology Reveal Purpose In The Universe.
  • Falk, Darrel R. Coming To Peace With Science: Bridging the Worlds Between Faith and Biology (Theistic Evolution Perspective).
  • Rana, Franz. Creating Life in the Lab: How New Discoveries in Synthetic Biology Make a Case for the Creator.
  • Sanford, John. Biological Information – New Perspectives A Synopsis and Limited Commentary.
  • *Wise, Kurt P. Devotional Biology: Learning to Worship the Creator of Organisms.

(The) Bible and Science

  • Brush, Nigel. The Limitations Of Scientific Truth: Why Science Can’t Answer Life’s Ultimate Questions.
  • Carlson, Richard F., ed. Science and Christianity: Four Views.
  • Collins, C. John. Science & Faith: Friends Or Foes?
  • Comfort, Ray. Scientific Facts in the Bible: 100 Reasons to Believe the Bible is Supernatural in Origin.
  • Davidson, Gregg. Friend of Science, Friend of Faith: Listening to God in His Works and Word.
  • Gould, Paul M., and Daniel Ray, eds. The Story of the Cosmos: How The Heavens Declare The Glory of God.
  • Greenwood, Kyle. Scripture and Cosmology: Reading the Bible Between the Ancient World and Modern Science.
  • Guillen, Michael. Amazing Truths: How Science And The Bible Agree.
  • McGrath, Alister.  Enriching Our Vision of Reality: Theology and the Natural Sciences in Dialogue
  • *Morris, Henry M. The Biblical Basis For Modern Science.
  • *Morris, Henry M. The Long War Against God.
  • Poythress, Vern S. Redeeming Science: A God-Centered Approach.
  • Ratzsch, Del. Science and Its Limits.
  • Schroeder, Gerald L. The Hidden Face of God: How Science Reveals the Ultimate Truth.
  • Schroeder, Gerald L. The Science of God: The Convergence of Scientific and Biblical Wisdom.


  • Eberlin, Marcos. Foresight: How the Chemistry of Life Reveals Planning and Purpose.
  • Lennox, John C. Cosmic Chemistry: Do God and Science Mix?
  • Rana, Fazale. The Cell’s Design: How Chemistry Reveals the Creator’s Artistry.
  • Tour, James. Chapter 4: “Are Present Proposals on Chemical Evolutionary Mechanisms Accurately Pointing toward First Life?” in Theistic Evolution: A Scientific, Theological, and Philosophical Critique.
  • Tour, James. Chapter 13: “We’re Still Clueless About The Origin of Life” in The Mystery of Life’s Origin: The Continuing Controversy.

Creation (Origins: Various Views)

  • Ashford, Bruce Riley, and Craig G. Bartholomew. The Doctrine of Creation: A Constructive Kuyperian Approach.
  • Ashton, John F., editor. In Six Days: Why Fifty Scientists Choose to Believe in Creation.
  • Carlson, Richard F., and Tremper Longman III. Science, Creation, And The Bible: Reconciling Rival Theories Of Origins.
  • Christianity Today, eds. The Origins Debate: Evangelical Perspectives on creation, Evolution, and Intelligent Design.
  • Friar, Wayne and Percival Davis. A Case For Creation (Third Edition).
  • Fulkerson, Geoffrey H., and Joel Thomas Chopp. Science And The Doctrine Of Creation: The Approach Of Ten Modern Theologians.
  • *Gange, Robert. Origins and Destiny: A Scientist Examines God’s Handiwork.
  • *Gange, Robert. Portal to Paradise: Historical Events that Confirm Eternal Life.
  • Garner, Paul. The New Creationism: Building Scientific Theories on a Biblical Foundation.
  • Hagopian, David G., ed. The Genesis Debate: Three Views on the Days of Creation.
  • Hanegraaf, Hank. The Creation Answer Book.
  • *Keathley, Kenneth D. and Mark F. Rooker. 40 Questions About Creation and Evolution.
  • *Lisle, Jason. Ultimate Proof of Creation: Resolving The Origins Debate.
  • McFarland, Ian A. From Nothing: A Theology of Creation.
  • Moo, Douglas J., and Jonathan A. Moo. Creation Care: A Biblical Theology of the Natural World.
  • *Moore, John N. How To Teach Origins (Without ACLU Interference).
  • Rana, Fazale & Hugh Ross. Origins of Life: Biblical and Evolutionary Models Face Off.
  • *Ratzsch, Del. The Battle of Beginnings: Why Neither Side Is Winning the Creation- Evolution Debate.
  • *Rau, Gerald. Mapping The Origins Debate: Six Models of The Beginning of Everything.
  • Ross, Hugh. A Matter of Days.
  • Ross, Hugh. Beyond The Cosmos.
  • Ross, Hugh. Creator and The Cosmos.
  • Roth, Ariel. Origins, Linking Science and Scripture.
  • Sproul, R.C. and Keith Mathison. Not A Chance: God, Science, and the Revolt against Reason.
  • Strauss, Michael G. The Creator Revealed: A Physicist Examines The Big Bang and The Bible.
  • Tan, Change Laura and Rob Stadler. The Stairway To Life: An Origin-Of-Life Reality Check.
  • Torrance, Andrew B., and Thomas H. McCall, eds. Knowing Creation: Perspectives from Theology, Philosophy, and Science.
  • *Wallace, J. Warner. Gods Crime Scene: A Cold-Case Detective Examines The Evidence For A Divinely Created Universe.
  • Whorton, Mark, and Hill Roberts. ULTIMATE GUIDE TO CREATION.
  • Wilson, Jonathan R. God’s Good World: Reclaiming The Doctrine of Creation.
  • Wise, Kurt P. and Sheila A. Richardson. Something From Nothing: Understanding What You Believe about Creation and Why.
  • Wood, Todd Charles. The Quest: Exploring Creations Hardest Problems.
  • Wood, Todd Charles, and Kurt P. Wise. Understanding the Pattern of Life: Origins and Organization of the Species.

Creationism (Young Earth Creationism or YEC)

  • Ashton, John F., editor. In Six Days: Why Fifty Scientists Choose to Believe in Creation.
  • *Barrick, William D. by William D. “Young Earth View of Adam” in Four Views on the Historical Adam.
  • Biddle, Daniel A. Answers to the Top 50 Questions about Genesis, Creation, and Noah’s Flood (Debunking Evolution).
  • Chittick, Donald E. The Controversy: Roots of the Creation-Evolution Conflict.
  • Chittick, Donald E. The Puzzle of Ancient Man: Evidence for Advanced Technology in Past Civilizations.
  • DeYoung, Don B. Physical Science and Creation: An Introduction.
  • DeYoung, Don B. Thousands…Not Billions: Challenging an Icon of Evolution Questioning the Age of the Earth.
  • *Dolphin, Lambert T. Jesus: Lord of Time and Space.
  • Douglas, J. Palmer. Why We Believe In Creationism.
  • *Duncan III, J. Ligon and David W. Hall “The 24-Hour View” in The Genesis Debate: Three Views on the Days of Creation.
  • Garner, Paul. The New Creationism: Building Scientific Theories on a Biblical Foundation.
  • Gish, Duane T. Creation Scientists Answer Their Critics.
  • *Ham, Ken. “Young Earth Position” in Four Views on Creation, Evolution, and Intelligent Design.
  • *Hoffmeier, James K. “Genesis as History” in Genesis: History, Fiction, or Neither? Three Views on the Bibles Earliest Chapters.
  • Kofahl, Robert E. and Kelly L. Segraves. The Creation Explanation: A Scientific Alternative to Evolution.
  • *MacArthur, John. The Battle of Beginnings: Creation, Evolution, and The Bible.
  • *Mitchell, Colin. The Case For Creationism.
  • Morris, Henry M. Biblical Creationism: What Each Book of the Bible Teaches About Creation and the Flood.
  • Morris III,  Henry, John D. Morris, et al. Creation Basics and Beyond, 2nd Edition.
  • Morris, Henry M. and John C. Whitcomb. The Genesis Flood: The Biblical Record and Its Scientific Implications.
  • Morris, Henry M. Scientific Creationism.
  • Morris, John D. The Global Flood: Unlocking Earths Geologic History.
  • Morris, John D. The Young Earth: The Real History of the the Earth – Past, Present, and Future.
  • Morris, John D and Frank J. Sherwin. The Fossil Record: Unearthing Natures History of Life.
  • Mortenson. Terry. The Great Turning Point.
  • Nailor, Matt. The Young Earth Creation Model: The True History of Humanity.
  • *Nelson, Paul and Mark Reynolds. “Young Earth Creationism” in Three Views on Creation and Evolution.
  • Numbers, Ronald L. The Creationists: From Scientific Creationism to Intelligent Design (Expanded Edition – This is a history of Creationism from the perspective of an Evolutionist).
  • Reed, John. Rocks Aren’t Clocks: A Critique of the Geological Timescale.
  • Vail, Tom. Grand Canyon: A Different View.
  • Whitcomb, John C. The Early Earth: An Introduction to Biblical Creationism.
  • Whitcomb, John C. The World That Perished: An Introduction to Biblical Catastrophism.
  • Wise, Kurt P. and Sheila A. Richardson. Something From Nothing: Understanding What You Believe about Creation and Why.
  • Wood, Todd Charles. The Quest: Exploring Creations Hardest Problems.
  • Wood, Todd Charles, and Kurt P. Wise. Understanding the Pattern of Life: Origins and Organization of the Species.
  • Young Earth/ Six-Day Creationism Websites: – Ken Ham’s Ministry: ;  Genesis Apologetics: ; Institute for Creation Research (Founded by Henry M. Morris) – ; Creation Ministries International –

Day Age Theory or Progressive Creationism (Old Earth)

  • Gribbin, John. Alone in the Universe: Why Our Planet Is Unique.
  • Hill, Carol, Gregg Davidson, Tim Helble, and Wayne Ranney, editors. The Grand Canyon, Monument to an Ancient Earth: Can Noahs Flood Explain the Grand Canyon?
  • Metaxas, Eric. Is Atheism Dead?
  • Rana, Fazale. Creating Life In The Lab.
  • Rana, Fazale. Dinosaur Blood and the Age of the Earth.
  • Rana, Fazale. The Cells Design.
  • Rana, Fazale & Hugh Ross. Origins of Life: Biblical and Evolutionary Models Face Off.
  • Rana, Fazale & Hugh Ross. Who Was Adam? A Creation Model Approach To The Origin of Humanity.
  • Rana, Fazale R. & Kenneth R. Samples. Humans 2.0: Scientific, Philosophical and Theological Perspectives on Transhumanism.
  • Ross, Hugh. A Matter of Days.
  • Ross, Hugh. Beyond The Cosmos.
  • Ross, Hugh. Creator and The Cosmos.
  • Ross, Hugh. Improbable Planet.
  • Ross, Hugh. More Than A Theory.
  • Ross, Hugh. Navigating Genesis.
  • Ross, Hugh. The Fingerprint of God.
  • Ross, Hugh. Why The Universes Is The Way It Is.
  • Snoke, David. A Biblical Case for an Old Earth.
  • Young, Davis A. and Ralph F. Stearley. The Bible, Rocks and Time: Geological Evidence for the Age of the Earth.
  • Websites Promoting The Day Age Theory: ; and 

Debates over Creation, Evolution, Genesis and Science

  • Behe, Michael J., and T.D. Singh. God, Intelligent Design & Fine Tuning.
  • Cabal, Theodore and Peter Rasor II. Controversy of the Ages: Why Christians Should Not Divide Over The Age Of The Earth.
  • Caneday, Ardel B., ed. Four Views on the Historical Adam.
  • Carlson, Richard F., editor. Science & Christianity: Four Views.
  • Carlson, Richard F., and Tremper Longman III. Science, Creation, And The Bible: Reconciling Rival Theories Of Origins.
  • Christianity Today, eds. The Origins Debate: Evangelical Perspectives on creation, Evolution, and Intelligent Design.
  • Dembski, William A., and Michael Ruse, eds. Debating Design: From Darwin To DNA.
  • Hagopian, David G., ed. The Genesis Debate: Three Views on the Days of Creation.
  • Halton, Charles, ed. Genesis: History, Fiction, or Neither? Three Views on the Bible’s Earliest Chapters.
  • Johnson, Phillip E., and Denis O. Lamoureux. Darwinism Defeated? The Johnson- Lamoureux Debate on Biological Origins.
  • Jones, Preston, ed. Is Belief In God Good, Bad, Or Irrelevant? A Professor And A Punk Rocker Discuss Science, Religion, Naturalism and Christianity (Preston Jones of Brown University and Greg Graffin of the band Bad Religion).
  • *Keathley, Kenneth D. and Mark F. Rooker. 40 Questions About Creation and Evolution.
  • Rasmussen, Joshua and Felipe Leon. Is God The Best Explanation of Things? 
  • *Ratzsch, Del. The Battle of Beginnings: Why Neither Side Is Winning the Creation- Evolution Debate.
  • *Rau, Gerald. Mapping The Origins Debate: Six Models of The Beginning of Everything.
  • Reynolds, John Mark, ed. Three Views on Creation and Evolution.
  • Singh, T.D. God, Intelligent Design and Fine Tuning: A Dialogue Between T.D. Singh and Michael J. Behe.
  • Stewart, Robert B., ed. Intelligent Design: William A. Dembski & Michael Ruse in Dialogue.
  • Stump, James, ed. Four Views on Creation, Evolution, and Intelligent Design.
  • *Wood, Todd Charles, and Darrel R. Falk. The Fool And The Heretic: How Two Scientists Moved Beyond Labels To A Christian Dialogue About Creation and Evolution.
  • Youngblood, Ronald. The Genesis Debate: Persistent Questions About Creation and The Flood.


  • Biddle, Daniel. How Do Dinosaurs Fit into the Bible?
  • Clarey, Tim. Dinosaurs: Marvels of God’s Design – The Science of the Biblical Account
  • DeYoung, Donald B. Dinosaurs and Creation: Questions and Answers.
  • Ham, Ken. The Great Dinosaur Mystery Solved.
  • Institute For Creation Research. Guide to Dinosaurs.
  • Thomas, Brian. Dinosaurs and the Bible.
  • Wieldand, Carl. Dragons of the Deep: Ocean Monsters Past and Present.

Evolutionary Creationism or Theistic Evolution 

  • Allert, Craig D. Early Readings of Genesis One: Patristic Exegesis and Literal Interpretation (BioLogos Books on Science and Christianity).
  • Applegate, Kathryn & J.B. Stump. How I Changed My Mind About Evolution: Evangelicals Reflect on Faith and Science.
  • Barrett, Justin L. Thriving with Stone Age Minds: Evolutionary Psychology, Christian Faith, and the Quest for Human Flourishing (BioLogos Books on Science and Christianity)
  • Bishop, Robert C. and Larry L. Funck. Understanding Scientific Theories of Origins: Cosmology, Geology, and Biology in Christian (BioLogos Books on Science and Christianity).
  • Collins, Francis S. The Language of God: A Scientist Presents Evidence for Belief.
  • Keathley, Kenneth, J.B. Stump, and Joe Aguirre. Old-Earth Or Evolutionary Creation? Discussing Origins with Reasons To Believe and Biologos.
  • Kofahl, Robert E. The Creation Explanation: A Scientific Alternative to Evolution.
  • Haarsma, Deborah B. “Evolutionary Creationism” in Four Views On Creation, Evolution, and Intelligent Design.
  • Haarsma, Deborah B. and Loren D. Haarsma. Origins: Christian Perspectives on Creation, Evolution, and Intelligent Design.
  • Lamoureux, Denis O. I Love Jesus & I Accept Evolution
  • Lamoureux, Denis O. Evolutionary Creation: A Christian Approach to Evolution.
  • Lamoureux, Denis O. “No Historical Adam: Evolutionary Creation View” in Four Views On The Historical Adam.
  • McGrath, Alister. The Science of God.
  • *Moreland, J.P., Stephen C. Meyer, Christopher Shaw, Ann K. Gauger, and Wayne Grudem, eds. Theistic Evolution: A Scientific, Philosophical, and Theological Critique.
  • Ray, Janet Kellogg. Baby Dinosaurs on the Ark?: The Bible and Modern Science and the Trouble of Making It All Fit.
  • Van Till, Howard J. “The Fully Gifted Creation” in Three Views on Creation and Evolution.
  • Van Till, Howard J. A Case For Theistic Evolution. (A Zondervan Digital Short).
  • Websites Promoting Theistic Evolution: ; ; ; and

Evolution (Naturalistic & Theistic) Critiqued

  • Ashton, John. Evolution Impossible: 12 Reasons Why Evolution Cannot Explain the Origin of Life on Earth.
  • Baugh, Carl E. Why Do Men Believe Evolution Against All Odds?
  • Behe, Michael J. A Mousetrap for Darwin: Michael J. Behe Answers His Critics.
  • *Behe, Michael J. Darwins Black Box: The Biochemical Challenge to Evolution
  • Behe, Michael J. The Edge of Evolution: The Search for the Limits of Darwinism.
  • Behe, Michael J. Darwin Devolves: The New Science About DNA That Challenges Evolution.
  • Bergman, Jerry. Censoring the Darwin Skeptics: How Belief in Evolution Is Enforced by Eliminating Dissidents (Volume 3, Second Edition).
  • Bergman, Jerry. Evolution’s Blunders, Frauds and Forgeries.
  • Bergman, Jerry. Fossil Forensics: Separating Fact From Fantasy in Paleontology.
  • Bergman, Jerry. Hitler and the Nazi Darwinian Worldview: How the Nazi Eugenic Crusade for a Superior Race Caused the Greatest Holocaust in World History.
  • Bergman, Jerry. How Darwinism Corrodes Morality: Darwinism, Immorality, Abortion and the Sexual Revolution.
  • Bergman, Jerry. Silencing the Darwin Skeptics: The War Against Theists (Volume 2).
  • Bergman, Jerry. Slaughter of the Dissidents: The Shocking Truth About Killing Careers of Darwin Daughters (Volume 1, Second Edition).
  • Bergman, Jerry. The Dark Side of Darwin: A Critical Analysis of an Icon of Science.
  • Bergman, Jerry. The Darwin Effect: Its Influence On Nazism, Eugenics, Racism, Cammunism, Capitalism, & Sexism.
  • Bergman, Jerry. The Last Pillars of Darwinian Evolution Falsified: Further Evidence Proving Darwinian Evolution Wrong.
  • Bergman, Jerry. The Three Pillars of Evolution Demolished: Why Darwin Was Wrong.
  • Bergman, Jerry. Useless Organs: The Rise And Fall Of A Central Claim Of Evolution.
  • Berlinski, David. The Deniable Darwin.
  • *Bethell, Tom. Darwins House Of Cards: A Journalists Odyssey Through The Darwin Debates.
  • *Carlson, Ron and Ed Decker. “Evolution The Incredible Theory” in Fast Facts on False Teaching.
  • Carter, Robert, ed. Evolution’s Achilles’ Heels: 9 Ph.D. Scientists Explain Evolutions Fatal Flaws—In Areas Claimed To Be Its Greatest Strengths.
  • Comfort, Ray. Intelligent Design Vs. Evolution: Letters to an Atheist.
  • Comfort, Ray. Nothing Created Everything: The Scientific Impossibility of Atheistic Evolution.
  • *Denton, Michael. Evolution: A Theory In Crises.
  • Denton, Michael. Evolution: Still A Theory In Crises.
  • Gale, Barry G. Evolution Without Evidence: Charles Darwin and The Origin of the Species.
  • Gallop, Roger G. Evolution: The Greatest Deception In Modern History.
  • *Gish, Duane T. Evolution: The Fossils Still Say No!
  • *Gish, Duane T. Letter To A Theistic Evolutionist: Sincerely your brother in Christ.
  • Gitt, Werner. Did God Use Evolution?
  • *Grudem, Wayne, ed. A Biblical Case Against Theistic Evolution: Is It Compatible with the Bible?
  • Ham, Ken, and Bodie Hodge, eds. Glass House: Shattering the Myth of Evolution.
  • Ham, Ken. The Lie: Evolution (Revised & Expanded Edition).
  • Hanegraaf, Hank. The FARCE of Evolution.
  • Javor, George. Evidences for Creation: Natural Mysteries Evolution Cannot Explain.
  • *Jeanson, Nathaniel T. Replacing Darwin: The New Origin of Species.
  • *Johnson, Phillip E. Darwin on Trial.
  • *Johnson, Phillip E. Defeating Darwinism by Opening Minds.
  • *Johnson, Phillip E. Reason in the Balance: The Case Against Naturalism in Science, Law Education.
  • *Kethley, Kenneth D., and Mark F. Rooker. 40 Questions About Creation and Evolution.
  • Kinson, John M. God & Evolution: How An Atheist Scientist Changed His Mind.
  • Meyer, Stephen C. Paul A Nelson, et al. Explore Evolution: The Arguments For and Against Neo-Darwinism.
  • Moore, David T. Five Lies Of The Century (Evolution is an established scientific fact).
  • Morrison John. Evolution’s Final Days: The Mounting Evidence Disproving Evolution.
  • *Rhodes, Ron. The 10 Things You Should Know About the Creation vs. Evolution Debate.
  • Richards, Jay, editor. God And Evolution
  • Richards, Lawrence O. It Couldn’t Just Happen: Fascinating Facts About God’s World.
  • Ross, Hugh. What Darwin Didn’t Know.
  • Sarfati, Jonathan. Refuting Evolution.
  • Sarfati, Jonathan. The Greatest Hoax on Earth? Refuting Dawkins on Evolution.
  • Simmons, M.D. Geoffrey. What Darwin Didnt Know: A Doctor Dissects the Theory of Evolution.
  • Sivanesan, Nirushan. Objections to Evolution.
  • Spetner, Lee M. Not by Chance! Shattering the Modern Theory of Evolution.
  • Spetner, Lee M. The Evolution Revolution: Why Thinking People Are Rethinking the Theory of Evolution.
  • Thomas, Neil. Taking Leave Of Darwin: A Longtime Agnostic Discovers the Case for Design.
  • Woodward, Thomas. Doubts About Darwin.


  • Bergman, Jerry. Fossil Forensics: Separating Fact from Fantasy in Paleontology.
  • Lubenow, Marvin L. Bones of Contention: A Creationist Assessment of Human Fossils.
  • Morris, John D. and Frank J. Sherwin. The Fossil Record: Unearthing nature’s History of Life.
  • Parker, Gary. The Fossil Book (Wonders of Creation).

Gap Theory

  • *Barnhouse, Donald Grey. Genesis.
  • Chalmers, Thomas. The Works of Thomas Chalmers: Complete In One Volume.
  • Custance, Arthur C.. Without Form and Void.
  • DeHaan, M.R. Genesis.
  • Pember, G.H. Earths Earliest Ages.
  • Pink, A.W. Gleanings in Genesis.
  • Rimmer, Harry. Modern Science and the Genesis Record.
  • Scofield C.I. Scofield Reference Bible (Notes).

Genesis Studies and Commentaries

  • Arnold, Bill T. Genesis (New Cambridge Bible Commentary).
  • Atkinson, David J. The Message of Genesis 1–11 (The Bible Speaks Today Series).
  • Baldwin, Joyce G. The Message of Genesis 12–50 (The Bible Speaks Today Series).
  • Barnhouse, Donald. Genesis: A Devotional Commentary.
  • Batten, Don and Jonathan Sarfati. 15 Reasons To Take Genesis As History.
  • *Bethancourt, Phillip. Exalting Jesus in Genesis (Christ-Centered Exposition).
  • Blick, Edward F. A Scientific Analysis of Genesis.
  • Blocher, Henri. In the Beginning: The Opening Chapters of Genesis.
  • *Boice, James Montgomery. Genesis: An Expositional Commentary (3 vols.).
  • Birgman, Brian. Jonathan Edwards on Genesis: Hermeneutics, Homiletics, and Theology.
  • Briscoe, D. Stuart. Genesis (The Preacher’s Commentary).
  • Calvin, John. Genesis (Geneva Series of Commentaries).
  • Charles, J. Daryl, ed. Reading Genesis 1-2: An Evangelical Converstation.
  • Cooper, Bill. The Authenticity of the Book of Genesis: A Study in Three Parts.
  • Cooper, Bill. After the Flood: The Early Post-Flood History of Europe Traced Back to Noah.
  • Collins, C. John. Reading Genesis Well: Navigating History, Poetry, Science, and Truth in Genesis 1-11.
  • Copan, Paul and Douglas Jacoby. Origins: The Ancient Impact and Modern Implications of Genesis 1-11.
  • *Currid, John D. Genesis Volume 1 (EP Study Commentary).
  • *Currid, John D. Genesis Volume 2 (EP Study Commentary).
  • Feinberg, Jeffrey Enoch. Walk Genesis! A Messianic Jewish Devotional Commentary (Walk Series).
  • Fruchtenbaum, Arnold. The Book of Genesis.
  • Gangel, Kenneth and Stephen J. Bramer. Holman Old Testament Commentary – Genesis.
  • *Goldingay, John. Genesis (Baker Commentary on the Old Testament: Pentateuch).
  • *Goldingay, John. Genesis for Everyone, Part 1: Chapters 1-16 (The Old Testament for Everyone).
  • *Goldingay, John. Genesis for Everyone, Part 2: Chapters 17-50 (The Old Testament for Everyone).
  • *Greiddanus, Sidney. Preaching Christ from Genesis.
  • *Guzik, David. Genesis: Verse By Verse Commentary.
  • *Ham, Ken. Creation to Babel: Genesis 1-11.
  • Hamilton, Victor P. The Book of Genesis (New International Commentary on the Old Testament Series) 1-17.
  • Hamilton, Victor P. The Book of Genesis (New International Commentary on the Old Testament Series) 18-50.
  • Helm, David R. and Jon M. Dennis. The Genesis Factor: Probing Lifes Big Questions.
  • Jeanson, Nathaniel T. The Lost Treasures of Genesis.
  • *Jordan, James B. Creation In Six Days: A Defense of the Traditional Reading of Genesis One.
  • *Hughes, R. Kent. Genesis: Beginning and Blessing (Preaching the Word).
  • Keiser, Thomas A. Genesis 1-11: In Literary Coherence and Theological Message.
  • *Kidner, Derek. Genesis (Kidner Classic Commentaries).
  • Kline, Meredith G. Genesis: A New Commentary.
  • Lennox, John. Seven Days That Divide The World: The Beginning According To Genesis and Science
  • *Lisle, Jason. Understanding Genesis.
  • *Lisle, Jason. Why Genesis Matters: Christian Doctrine and The Creation Account.
  • Longman III, Tremper. How To Read Genesis.
  • Longman III, Tremper. Genesis (The Story of God Bible Commentary Book 1).
  • *MacArthur, John F. Genesis 1 to 11: Creation, Sin, and the Nature of God (MacArthur Bible Studies)
  • Luther, Martin. Day by Day in Genesis.
  • Luther, Martin. Lectures on Genesis. Volumes 1-8(Luther’s Works).
  • *MacArthur, John F. Genesis 12 to 33: The Father of Israel (MacArthur Bible Studies).
  • *MacArthur, John F. Genesis 34 to 50: Jacob and Egypt (MacArthur Bible Studies)
  • Matthews, Kenneth. The New American Commentary: Genesis 1- 11:26 (New American Commentary) (Volume 1) 
  • Matthews, Kenneth. Genesis 11:27-50:26: An Exegetical and Theological Exposition of Holy Scripture (Volume 1) (The New American Commentary).
  • McIntosh, Andy. Genesis for Today: Showing the Relevance of the Creation/Evolution Debate to Today’s Society.
  • Montgomery, John Warwick. The Quest for Noah’s Ark.
  • *Morris, Henry M. The Genesis Record: A Scientific and Devotional Commentary on the Book of Beginnings.
  • *Leupold, H.C. Exposition of Genesis: Volumes 1 and 2.
  • Lloyd-Jones, Martin. The Gospel in Genesis: From Fig Leaves to Faith.
  • Louth, Andrew, ed. Genesis 1-11 (Ancient Christian Commentary on Scripture Book 1)
  • Morris III, Henry M. Unlocking The Mysteries of Genesis: Explore the Science and Miracles of Creation.
  • Mortenson Terry and Thane H. Ury. Coming to Grips With Genesis.
  • Mortenson Terry. Searching for Adam: Genesis & the Truth About Man’s Origin.
  • Navigators. Genesis (LifeChange).
  • *Pink, A.W. Gleanings In Genesis.
  • Rhodes, Ron. 40 Days Through Genesis: Discover the Story That Started It All.
  • Rodovalho, Robson, and Gerald Schroeder. Scientific Commentaries On Genesis: Explaining The Scientific Phenomena Through The Original Hebrew Text And The Discoveries Of Modern Science.
  • *Ross, Allen. Creation And Blessing: A Guide To The Study And Exposition Of Genesis.
  • Sailhamer, John. Genesis (The Expositor’s Bible Commentary).
  • Sailhamer, John. Genesis Unbound: A Provocative New Look At The Creation Account.
  • Sarfati, Jonathan. The Genesis Account: A Theological, Historical, and Scientific Commentary on Genesis 1-11.
  • *Schaeffer, Francis. Genesis in Space and Time.
  • Schroeder, Gerald L. Genesis and the Big Bang Theory: The Discovery of Harmony Between Modern Science And The Bible.
  • Schroeder, Gerald L. Genesis One: A Physicist Looks at Creation.
  • Sheridan, Mark. , ed. Genesis 12-50 (Ancient Christian Commentary on Scripture Book 1)
  • Steinmann, Andrew E. Genesis: An Introduction and Commentary (Tyndale Old Testament Commentaries Book 1).
  • Vos, Howard. Genesis (Everyday Bible Commentary).
  • Waltke, Bruce and Cathi J. Fredricks. Genesis: A Commentary.
  • Walton, John H. Genesis (The NIV Application Commentary).
  • Walton, John H. The Lost World of Adam and Eve: Genesis 2-3 and the Human Origins Debate (The Lost World Series, vol. 1).
  • Walton, John H. The Lost World of the Flood: Mythology, Theology, and the Deluge Debate (The Lost World Series, Volume 5).
  • Walton, John H. The Lost World of Genesis One: Ancient Cosmology and the Origins Debate (The Lost World Series, vol. 2).
  • Watkin, Christopher. Thinking through Creation: Genesis 1 and 2 as Tools of Cultural Critique.
  • Wenham, Gordon J. Genesis 1-15 (Word Biblical Commentary).
  • Wenham, Gordon J. Genesis 16-50 (Word Biblical Commentary).
  • *Wiersbe, Warren W. Be Basic (Genesis 1-11): Believing the Simple Truth of God’s Word (The BE Series Commentary).
  • *Wiersbe, Warren W. Be Obedient (Genesis 12-25): Learning the Secret of Living by Faith (The BE Series Commentary).
  • *Wiersbe, Warren W. Be Authentic (Genesis 25-50): Exhibiting Real Faith in the Real World (The BE Series Commentary).
  • Wood, Leon J. A Shorter Commentary on Genesis.
  • Young, E.J. In The Beginning: Genesis 1-3 And The Authority of Scripture.
  • Young, E.J. Studies in Genesis One (International library of philosophy and theology: Biblical and theological studies series).


  • Biddle, Daniel. The Ark and the Darkness: Unearthing the Mysteries of Noahs Flood.
  • Bokovov, Vail, Tom, John Hergenrather, Mike Oard. Your Guide to Grand Canyon (True North Series).
  • Bokovoy, Dennis, John Hergenrather, Mike Oard. Your Guide to Yellowstone and Grand Teton National Parks (True North Series).
  • Bokovoy, Dennis, Oard, Mike, Tom Vail, & John Hergenrather. Your Guide to Zion and Bryce Canyon (True North Series).
  • Brand, Leonard, and Art Chadwick. Faith, Reason, & Earth History: A Paradigm of Earth and Biological Origins by Intelligent Design.
  • Clarey, Timothy. Carved in Stone: Geologic Evidence of the Worldwide Flood.
  • Ham, Ken. A Flood of Evidence: 40 Reasons Noah and the Ark Still Matter.
  • Ham, Ken. The Global Flood: A biblical and scientific look at the catastrophe that changed the earth (Answers in Genesis Pocket Guides).
  • Hill, Carol and Gregg Davidson. The Grand Canyon, Monument to an Ancient Earth: Can Noah’s Flood Explain the Grand Canyon? (Old Earth View Presented)
  • Morris, John D. The Geology Book (Wonders of Creation Series).
  • Morris, John D. The Global Flood: Unlocking Earth’s Geologic History.
  • Morris, John. The Young Earth: The Real History of the Earth – Past, Present, and Future (Revised and Expanded).
  • *Snelling, Andrew. Earth’s Catastrophic Past: Geology, Creation, & The Flood.
  • Vail, Tom. Grand Canyon: A Different View.
  • *Whitcomb, John C. and Henry M. Morris. The Genesis Flood: The Biblical Record and Its Scientific Implications.

Intelligent Design

  • Ankerberg, John and High Ross. What Scientific Evidence Proves God Created & Designed the Universe?: Study Guide.
  • Behe, Michael, William A. Dembski, and Stephen C. Meyer. Science And Evidence For Design In The Universe.
  • Bergman, Jerry. Poor Design: An Invalid Argument Against Intelligent Design.
  • Brand, Leonard and Arthur Chadwick. Faith, Reason, & Earth History: A Paradigm of Earth and Biological Origins by Intelligent Design
  • Cassell, Eric. Animal Algorithms: Evolution and the Mysterious Origin of Ingenious Instincts.
  • Comfort, Ray. Intelligent Design Vs. Evolution: Letters to an Atheist.
  • Dembski, William A. Intelligent Design: The Bridge Between Science and Theology.
  • Dembski, William A., ed. Mere Creation: Science, Faith & Intelligent Design.
  • Dembski, William A. The Design Inference: Eliminating Chance Through Small Probabilities.
  • Dembski, William A. The Design Revolution: Answering the Toughest Questions About Intelligent Design.
  • Dembski, William A., and Jonathan Witt. The Intelligent Design Uncensored: An Easy- to-Understand Guide to the Controversy.
  • Dembski, William A. The Comprehensive Guide to Science and Faith: Exploring the Ultimate Questions About Life and the Cosmos.
  • Dembski, William A., and Sean McDowell. Understanding Intelligent Design: Everything You Need to Know in Plain Language.
  • Denton, Michael. Children of Light: The Astonishing Properties of Sunlight that Make Us Possible.
  • Denton, Michael J. Destiny: How The Laws Of Biology Reveal Purpose In The Universe.
  • Denton, Michael. Fire-Maker: How Humans Were Designed to Harness Fire and Transform Our Planet.
  • Denton, Michael. The Miracle of the Cell.
  • Denton, Michael. The Wonder of Water.
  • Eberlin, Marcos. Fore Sight: How the Chemistry of Life Reveals Planning and Purpose.
  • Gonzalez, Guillermo and Jay W. Richards. Creation, Evolution, and Intelligent Design (Christian Answers to Hard Questions).
  • Hedin, Eric. Canceled Science: What Some Atheists Dont Want You to See.
  • *Johnson, Phillip E. Darwin on Trial.
  • Keas, Michael Newton. Unbelievable: 7 Myths About the History and Future of Science and Religion.
  • Klinghoffer, David, ed. The Unofficial Guide To Cosmos: Fact And Fiction In Neil Degrasse Tyson’s Landmark Science Series.
  • Leila, Matti & Jonathan Witt. Heretic: One Scientists Journey From Darwin To Design.
  • Lo, Thomas Y. Evolution and Intelligent Design in a Nutshell.
  • *Meyer, Stephen C. Signature in the Cell: DNA and the Evidence for Intelligent Design.
  • Meyer, Stephen C. Darwins Doubt: The Explosive Origin Of Animal Life And The Case For Intelligent Design.
  • Meyer, Stephen C. “Intelligent Design” in Four Views On Creation, Evolution, and Intelligent Design edited by J.B. Stump.
  • Meyer, Stephen C. Return of the God Hypothesis: Three Scientific Discoveries That Reveal the Mind Behind the Universe.
  • Moreland, J.P. The Creation Hypothesis: Scientific Evidence for an Intelligent Designer.
  • Thaxton, Charles B., ed. The Mystery of Life’s Origin.
  • Thomas, Neil. Taking Leave of Darwin: A Longtime Agnostic Discovers the Case for Design.
  • Travis, Melissa Cain. Science and The Mind of the Maker: What the Conversation Between Faith and Science Reveals About God.
  • *Wells, Jonathan. Icons of Evolution: Science or Myth? Why Much of What We teach About Evolution Is Wrong.
  • Wells, Jonathan. The Myth of Junk DNA.
  • Wells, Jonathan. The Politically Incorrect Guide to Darwinism and Intelligent Design.
  • Wells, Jonathan. Zombie Science: More Icons of Evolution.
  • Woodward, Thomas. Darwin Strikes Back: Defending the Science of Intelligent Design.
  • Websites Promoting Intelligent Design: ; ; ; ; ; 

Naturalism/Materialism/ & Scientism Critiqued

  • Berlinski, David. The Devils Delusion: Atheism and its Scientific Pretensions.
  • Copan, Paul and Charles Taliaferro, eds. The Naturalness of Belief: New Essays on Theisms Rationality.
  • *Crain, Natasha. Faithfully Different: Regaining Biblical Clarity in a Secular Culture.
  • Dembski, William A., and Jonathan Wells. How To Be An Intellectually Fulfilled Atheist (or not).
  • Gange, Robert. Godless Folly: Scientific Observations That Refute Materialism.
  • Gordon, Bruce and William Dembski. The Nature of Nature: Examining the Role of Naturalism in Science.
  • Hunter, Cornelius G. Sciences Blind Spot: The Unseen Religion of Scientific Naturalism.
  • *Johnson, Phillip E. Reason in the Balance: The Case Against Naturalism in Science, Law Education
  • Johnson, Phillip E. The Wedge of Truth: Splitting The Foundations of Naturalism.
  • Lennox, John. Can Science Explain Everything?
  • Lennox, John. Gods Undertaker: Has Science Buried God?
  • *Meyer, Stephen C. Return of the God Hypothesis: Three Scientific Discoveries That Reveal the Mind Behind the Universe.
  • *Moreland, J.P. Christianity and the Nature of Science.
  • *Moreland, J.P. Scientism and Secularism: Learning to Respond to a Dangerous Ideology.
  • Nagel, Thomas. Mind And Cosmos: Why The Materialist Neo-Darwinian Conception of Nature Is Almost Certainly False.
  • Plantinga, Alvin. Where The Conflict Really Lies: Science, Religion, & Naturalism.
  • Shepardson, Andrew J. Whos Afraid of the Unmoved Mover?: Postmodernism and Natural Theology.
  • Stokes, Mitch. How To Be An Atheist: Why Skeptics Arent Skeptical Enough.
  • Turek, Frank. Stealing from God: Why Atheists Need God to Make Their Case.
  • Williams, Richard N. and Daniel N. Robinson, eds. Scientism: The New Orthodoxy.
  • West, John G. editor. The Magicians Twin: C.S. Lewis on Science, Scientism, and Society.

YouTube Videos On Genesis, Creation, Science, the Bible, and Evolution

  • “*Nothing Left to Chance” (48:15) {R.C. Sproul, Ligonier Ministries}.
  • “An Interview with Michael J. Denton” (32:47).
  • “Blind Watchmaker? A Skeptical Look at Darwinism” (1:12:55) {Phillip E. Johnson}.
  • “God, Science & the Big Questions: Leading Christian Thinkers Respond to the New Atheism” (1:45:15) {Held at Biola University – with William Lane Craig, John Lennox, J.P. Moreland, and Hugh Hewitt}.
  • “Hugh Ross and Walter Kaiser vs. Ken Ham and Jason Lisle – Genesis Debate” (3:45:06).
  • “Hugh Ross and John Ankerberg – Genesis and Science” (2:49:36).
  • “*God and Evolution: The Problem with Theistic Evolution” – Stephen C. Meyer (1:02:36).
  • “The Origin of Life: Evolution vs. Design” [Full Debate between evolutionist, Michael Ruse and Reason to Believe’s – Fazale Rana, (2:28:35)].
  • “God & Evolution: A Critique of Theistic Evolution” (2:23:44) [with Stephen Meyer].
  • “Mathematical Challenges to Darwin’s Theory of Evolution with Berlinski, Meyer, and Gelerenter” (57:14).
  • “For the City: J.P. Moreland on “A Christian View of Science” (1:08:36).
  • “Hugh Ross talks Four Views on Creation, Evolution, and Intelligent Design” (Part 1, 33:21).
  • “Creation – Evolution Debates – Dawkins vs. Lennox at Cambridge” (1:21:53).
  • “Intelligent Design Vs. Evolution 2.0 – Perry Marshall debates Stephen Meyer” (1:21:53).
  • “John Lennox: The Question of Science and God – Part 1 (47:34) {Socrates in the City Interview with Eric Metaxas}; Part 2 (58:28).
  • “John Lennox: Seven Days That Divide the World” (1:30:07) {Socrates in the City Lecture Introduction and MC’d by Eric Metaxas}.
  • “Eric Metaxas Interviews Stephen Meyer on Science and Faith” (1:11:42).
  • “Can Science Explain Everything? An Interview with John Lennox (1:30:09).
  • “Eric Metaxas: The Miracle of the Universe” (45:06).
  • “Dr. David Berlinski: The Devil’s Delusion: Atheism and Its Scientific Pretensions” (1:14:57) {Socrates in the City – Introduction by Eric Mataxas}.
  • “Michael Behe – Lee Strobel – Molecular Machines Disprove Evolution” (8:41).
  • “Michael Behe: Darwin Devolves” (1:01:24) {Socrates in the City Interview with Eric Metaxas}.
  • “Irreducible Complexity” (1:42:48) {Michael Behe on the Access Research Network}.
  • “From the Big Bang to Irreducible Complexity – Michael Behe, PhD” (58:18).
  • “What Are The Limits of Darwinism? A Presentation by Dr. Micahel Behe at the University of Toronto” (1:25:34).
  • “Stephen Meyer & Eric Metaxas Discuss Darwin’s Doubt at Socrates in the City” (1:25:48) {Socrates in the City Interview with Eric Metaxas}.
  • “Stephen Meyer: The Return of the God Hypothesis” (1:11:55) {Socrates in the City Interview with Eric Metaxas}.
  • “Ard Louis: Science and Faith” (1:18:45) {SITC Interview with Eric Metaxas}.
  • “Has Science Buried God? Oxford Professor, John Lennox, at SMU (1:11:25).
  • “*James Tour: The Mystery of the Origin of Life” (58:02).
  • “Does Science Make Faith Obsolete? James Tour at Mississippi State University” (1:57:11).
  • “Dr. Tour On The Origin of Life at Syracuse University Cru” (1:30:29).
  • “Science Refutes Evolution – Dr. James Tour” (59:29).
  • “**Dr. James Tour speaking about Evolution” (34:05).
  • “*James Tour: The Origin of Life Has Not Been Explained” (22:57).
  • “The Scientific Case For Intelligent Design – William Dembski, PhD” (45:34).
  • “Information and the End of Materialism – William Dembski, PhD” (44:09).
  • “Molecular Machines and the Death of Darwinism – Dembski, Wells, Nelson, Macosko” (43:15).
  • “Detecting Design in Biology” (1:51:31) {Access Research Network}.
  • “Hugh Ross – Origin of Life” (1:13:01).
  • “Hugh Ross – Beyond the Cosmos: How Science Reveals God’s Trans-Dimensional Power” (1:13:11).
  • “Hugh Ross vs. Ken Ham – TBN Debate” (1:14:18).
  • “Hugh Ross vs. Kent Hovind How Old Is The Earth” (2:35:43).
  • “Does Science Prove God’s Glory? Dr. Hugh Ross Regent University (29:27).
  • “Hugh Ross – The Flood of Noah” (1:09:14).
  • “Hugh Ross – Hubble Confirms Universe Expanding Faster Than Expected” (1:47:11).
  • “Inner Life of the Cell (Full Version)” (7:59).
  • “The Failure of Darwin’s Theory” (28:31) {Stephen Meyer on John Ankerberg}.
  • “Harmony Between Christianity and Science Michael Guillen” (8:02).
  • “Francis Collins: How I Became a Christian” (27:53).
  • “10 Top Christian Scientists on Science and Faith” (6:28).
  • “Stephen C. Meyer The Ben Shapiro Show Sunday Special Episode 43” (59:38).
  • “How Darwinists Think Lecture and Q&A Phillip E. Johnson” (1:39:51).
  • “Phillip E. Johnson on Darwinism” (57:58).
  • “Darwinism on Trial” (1:40:59) {Phillip E. Johnson}.
  • “Focus on Darwinism – An Interview with Phillip E. Johnson” (54:08).
  • “One Nation Under Darwin” (1:32:09) {Phillip E. Johnson}.
  • “Debate: Darwinism: Science or Naturalistic Philosophy? Phillip Johnson vs William Provine” (1:46:33).
  • “Darwinism: Science or Philosophy – Phillip E. Johnson” (58:06).
  • *“The New History of the Human Race” (Answers in Genesis: 26 videos approximately 30 minutes each featuring Ken Ham interviewing Dr. Nathaniel Jeanson’s genetical research based on his book Traced).

DVD’s Or Amazon Prime Available for Purchase:

  • *Beyond Is Genesis History? (2017-2018: 
  • *Debunking Evolution: What Every Christian Student Should Know (2016: Good for Families with young or teenagers to watch together; Two Teens interact with all the main issues related to Genesis and Science – humorous, sometimes corny, but helpful).
  • *Debunking The 7 Myths that Deny the Historicity of Genesis, Creation, and Noah’s Flood: A Video-based training program to help students keep their faith in college (2019).
  • *Dismantled: A Scientific Deconstruction of The Theory of Evolution (2020: Features Creationist Scientists: Drs. John Sanford, Georgia Purdon, Andrew Snelling, Jaso Lisle, and Nathaniel Jeanson).
  • *Evolution’s Achilles’ Heels (2014: 15 PhD scientists reveal the fatal flaws of evolutionary theory).
  • Genesis: Paradise Lost (2017: Features Answers in Genesis scientists employing scientific and historical research that makes a solid case for the historicity of Genesis).
  • *Incredible Creatures That Defy Evolution (2000, 2002, and 2006: Parts 1-3: Features Dr. Jobe Martin who was a professor of Dentistry at Baylor University and an evolutionist; these three videos show how the study of biology convinced him of the biblical creationist view – great series to watch with kids/teenagers as each video features amazing animals).
  • Is Genesis History? (2017: Features Del Tackett and a dozen scientists as they explore the science behind the history recorded in Genesis. From rock layers to fossils, from lions to stars, from the Bible to artifacts – very well done!).

What is R.C. Sproul’s View on Creation?


(Excerpted from R.C. Sproul’s, Truths We Confess: A Layman’s Guide to the Westminster Confession of Faith [Volume 1]. In other settings, Dr. Sproul has also made a point of highlighting Dr. Douglas Kelly’s book, Creation and Change, as formative in his position on the subject of Creation).

We (Ligonier Ministries – see are commonly asked for a clarification of R.C. Sproul’s position on Creation. Here is his commentary on the Westminster Confession’s phrase “…in the space of six days.”

In the beginning, to create, or make of nothing, the world, and all things therein whether visible or invisible, in the space of six days; and all very good. In the Genesis account of creation, we read; “So the evening and the morning were the first day” (Gen. 1:5). This narrative proceeds from the first day to the sixth, each time referring to “the evening and the morning” and numbering the day. On the seventh day, God rested (Gen. 2:2). 

In our time a considerable number of theories have arisen denying that the creation, as we know it, took place in twenty-four hour days. Common to these theories is the acceptance of the dominant scientific view that the earth and life on it are very old. Many consider the biblical account to be primitive, mythological, and untenable in light of modern scientific knowledge.

This crisis has resulted in several attempts to reinterpret the Genesis account of creation. We are reminded of the sixteenth century, when Copernicus and his followers repudiated the old Ptolemaic view of astronomy. They argued that the center of the solar system is not the earth (geocentricity), but the sun (heliocentricity). It was a sad chapter in the history of the church, which had believed for more than fifteen hundred years that the Bible teaches geocentricity, when it condemned Galileo for believing and teaching heliocentricity. Both Luther and Calvin opposed Copernicus’s views, believing them to undermine Scripture’s authority.

Actually the Bible does not explicitly teach geocentricity anywhere. Scripture describes the movements of the heavens from the perspective of someone standing on earth: the sun moves across the sky, rising in the east and setting in the west. We use that same language today. The church thought that because the Bible uses this kind of descriptive language, it was therefore teaching something about the relationship between the sun and the earth. This is a clear case of scientific knowledge correcting the church’s interpretation of the Bible.

There are two spheres of revelation; the Bible (special revelation) and nature (general revelation). In the latter, God manifests himself through the created order. What God reveals in nature can never contradict what he reveals in Scripture, and what he reveals in Scripture can never contradict what he reveals in nature. He is the author of both forms of revelation, and God does not contradict himself.

The church has always taken the position that all truth meets at the top, and that science should never contradict Scripture. Scientific discoveries, however, can correct the theologian’s faulty understanding of Scripture, just as biblical revelation can correct faulty speculations drawn from the natural order. When the scientific consensus on a particular point is on a collision course with the unmistakable teaching of Scripture, I trust Scripture before I trust the speculations and inferences of scientists. That is consistent with the history of the church and Christianity. We believe that sacred Scripture is nothing less than the Creator’s truth revealed.

We have a problem not only with a six-day creation, but also with the age of the earth. Is the earth a few thousand years old or billions of years old (as scientists today insist)? Although the Bible clearly says that the world was created in six days, it gives no date for the beginning of that work. It would be a mistake to become embroiled in too much controversy about the date of creation.

In a Massachusetts college I taught Introduction to the Old Testament to two hundred and fifty students. Because the class was so large, we met in the chapel. Once I opened the old pulpit Bible to Genesis 1, and at the top of the page I read “4004 B.C.” I did some research to see how that date had been determined. In the seventeenth century an archbishop, James Ussher, made some calculations based on the genealogies in Genesis 5 and 11 and other chronological clues in the Old Testament. He even pinned down the day of the week and the time of day when creation occurred. I hasten to tell my students that we must be very careful to distinguish between the text of Scripture and additions to the text. In defending the biblical authority, we are not obligated to defend a theory based on the speculations of a bishop in times past.

If we take the genealogies that go back to Adam, however, and if we make allowances for certain gaps in them (which could certainly be there), it remains a big stretch from 4004 B.C. to 4.6 billion years ago. We also have the problem of the antiquity of the human race. It seems as if every time a new skeleton or skull is discovered, scientists push back the date of man’s origin another million years.

Scholars have proposed four basic theories to explain the time from of Genesis 1–2:

– the gap theory,

– the day-age theory,

– the framework hypothesis, and

– six-day creation.

Gap Theory

The gap theory was made popular by the Scofield Reference Bible (1909), which more than any other single edition of Scripture swept through this country and informed the theology of an entire generation of evangelicals. It became the principal instrument for propagating dispensational theology throughout America. In this Bible, Genesis 1:1 reads, “In the beginning, God created the heavens and the earth,” and verse 2 reads, “And the earth became without form, and void; and darkness was upon the face of the deep.” Other Bibles read, “And the earth was without form, and void; and darkness was upon the face of the deep.” Verse 2 describes what most scholars consider to be the as-yet-unordered, basic structure of the universe—darkness, emptiness. Then the Holy Spirit hovers over the waters (v.2) and God says, “Let there be light” (v.3). Thus came the light and then the creation of the heavens, fish, birds, animals, and so on.

The Hebrew word in verse 2 translated “was” is the very common verb hayah,which ordinarily means “to be.” Hayah means “to become” only in special circumstances, which are not present here. The Scofield Reference Bible translates verse 2 as “became” instead of “was” in order to facilitate the gap theory. As a result, only verse 1 refers to the original creation. Verse 2 then refers to a cosmic catastrophe in which the originally good and properly ordered creation became chaotic, dark, and fallen. After this period of darkness (the “gap”), God recreates the universe which could have been created billions of years ago, followed by a gap of billions of years (including the “geologic column” of immense ages), after which God returned to his distorted creation and renovated or reconstituted it relatively recently. The gap theory has also been called the restitution hypothesis, meaning that the creation narrative in Genesis is not about the original creation, but about the restitution of a fallen creation.

An entire generation was fed this theory through the Scofield Reference Bible. However, Scripture nowhere explicitly teaches that the original creation was marred and then after many years reconstituted. The broader context of the whole of Scripture militates against the gap theory.

Day-Age Theory

According to the second approach, the day-age theory, each “day” of Genesis 1 may be an age. After all, one day in the Lord’s sight is like a thousand years (2 Peter 3:8). Also, expressions like “in the days of Noah” and “in Abraham’s day” can refer to open-ended periods. The Hebrew word yom, translated “day” in Genesis, can mean something other than a twenty-four-hour period, as it must in Genesis 2:4, which refers to “the day that the LORD God made the earth and the heavens.” Accordingly, each “day” in Genesis 1 may refer to a thousand years, and perhaps even to millions of years. This will at least ameliorate some of the difficulties we have with those who argue for a gradual evolution of life-forms on this earth.

However, the day-age theory, like the gap theory, ignores the immediate context as well as the large biblical context. It ignores the fact that each of the six days of creation consists of an evening and a morning. If yom here means something like ten million years, then we need to give the words evening and morning the same kind of metaphorical meaning. From a literary, exegetical, and linguistic perspective, the day-age theory is weak. As a Christian apologist, I would not want to defend it.

The day-age theory tends to accommodate a theory of biological macroevolution that is incompatible with the Bible and purposive creation—the creation of all living things by the immediate agency of the sovereign God. Macroevolution teaches that all life has developed from a single, original cell, and that this happened through a somewhat fortuitous, chance collision of atoms, without an intelligent planner or Creator orchestrating the emergence of these species. Those who favor the day-age theory often link themselves with a position called theistic evolution, which grants the basic premises of biological evolution, but says that God, not chance, guided the process of evolution.

Macroevolution differs from microevolution. While the former teaches that all living things have developed from one original cell, the latter teaches that, over period of time, species undergo slight changes in order to adapt to their environment. Microevolution is not in dispute, either biblically or scientifically. Macroevolution has never been substantiated by observation or experiment, and it places its faith in an endless string of extremely improbable, yet beneficial chance mutations.

A frequent argument for macroevolution is the principle of common structure. All forms of life are made up of the same basic substances: amino acids, proteins, DNA, and that sort of thing. Because all living things have similar constituent parts, the argument goes, they must have developed from common ancestors. A common substance or structure, however, does not necessarily imply a common source. The fact that all forms of life are made of the same basic building blocks neither negates the possibility of evolution nor substantiates it. One would expect an intelligent Creator to have made all life-forms with a similar design—one that works on this earth.

When teaching a university course to thirty upper-level philosophy students, I asked who believed in macroevolution. Almost all the students raised their hands. I then asked them to explain why they believed in it. Their only argument was “common substance, therefore common source.” Most said they believed it because they had been taught in school, and they assumed their teachers knew what they were talking about.

Macroevolution, in the final analysis, is not a question of biology or natural science, which rely upon experimented verification, but of history, which tries to interpret evidence left from the past in a coherent fashion. The discipline of paleontology, which studies the fossil record, claims to put evolution on a scientific footing, but it performs no experiments to substantiate evolutionary processes. It simply lines up similar fossils and infers that one creature must be related to another by common decent.

In the recent past in Russia, leading international scholars who favor macroevolution met. While comparing notes, they found that the weakest evidence for their theories is the fossil record. I remember reading the Royal Society’s bulletin at that time and thinking, “What other source matters?” The fossil record is the one that counts, and yet that is the one that militates against their theory. I read an essay recently in which a professor argued for macroevolution on the basis of certain geological formations. He argued for an old earth on the ground that stratifications in the rocks contain fossils, which indicates a uniformitarian process that took millions of years to produce the whole formation. He then determined the age of each stratum by determining the kinds of fossils contained in each. This is a blatant example of what logicians call begging the question. It is circular reasoning to date the fossils by the rocks, and then date the rocks by the fossils. That just will not work.

We now have good evidence that stratification of rocks proves the antiquity of nothing. Within days after the Mount St. Helens explosion had subsided, scientists discovered that the cataclysmic upheaval of that volcanic explosion had laid down exactly the same rock stratification that had been assumed would take millions of years to develop. In other words, Mount St. Helens proved that catastrophic upheavals can produce the same empirical data as twenty million years of gradual deposition. We will not get into uniformitarianism or catastrophism here, except to say that they have been attempts to accommodate macroevolution. This tends to support and popularize the theory of theistic evolution, and it also uses the day-age theory of Genesis—a dangerous thing to do.

Framework Hypothesis

The third approach, called the framework hypothesis, was originally developed by the Dutch scholar Nicholas Ridderbos. He argued that the literary form of the book’s first few chapters differs from that of its later chapters. Certain basic characteristics found in poetry are missing from historical narrative, and certain characteristics found in historical narrative are missing from poetry. For example, the book of Exodus, with its account of the Jewish captivity in Egypt, has genealogies, family names, real historical places, and an unmetered literary style (i.e., lacking a particular rhythm), making it clearly prose and historical narrative. After the account of the exodus, the book’s author inserts the song of Miriam, which is in metered rhythm and is therefore clearly poetry. The literary structure before the song manifests all the characteristics of historical narrative, as does the structure following the poem.

Therefore, it is usually not difficult to distinguish between poetry and historical narrative in the Old Testament. But the opening chapters of Genesis, according to Ridderbos, exhibit a strange combination of literary forms. On the one hand is a discussion of the creation of a man and a woman who are given names that thereafter appear in genealogical accounts. In Hebrew literature this clearly signals historicity. The Garden of Eden is said to be set among four rivers, two of which we know were real rivers: the Tigris and the Euphrates. The style of writing is not metered or rhythmic, as Hebrew poetry normally is. All this indicates that the opening chapters of Genesis are historical narrative.

There are some anomalies, however. We find trees in this garden with strange names: “the tree of the knowledge of good and evil” and “the tree of life” (Gen. 2:9). Had they been apple or pear trees, there would have been no problem. But what does a tree of life look like? Is the author of Genesis telling us that a real tree was off limits, giving it a metaphorical meaning as the tree of life? We are also introduced to a serpent who speaks. Because of these two features, some have argued that the literary structure of the opening chapters of Genesis was self consciously and intentionally mythological, or at least filled with legend and saga.

Ridderbos contended that the beginning chapters of Genesis are a mixture of historical narrative and poetry, with part of the poetic structure being the repeated refrain, “So the evening and the morning were the first day” (Gen. 1:5), and so on. Ridderbos concluded that Genesis gives us not a historical narrative of the when or the how of divine creation, but a drama in seven acts. The first act ends with the statement, “So the evening and the morning were the first day.” The author of Genesis, then, is trying to show that God’s work of creation took place in seven distinct stages, which incidentally fit remarkably well into the stages identified by the modern theories of cosmic evolution.

Therefore, the framework hypothesis allows one to step into a Big Bang cosmology while maintaining the credibility and inspiration of Genesis 1-2. This is not history, but drama. The days are simply artistic literary devices to create a framework for a lengthy period of development.

In America Ridderbos’s work was widely disseminated by Meredith Kline, who for many years taught Old Testament at Westminster Theological Seminary, then at Gordon-Conwell Theological Seminary, and then at Westminster Seminary California. Because Kline endorsed the framework hypothesis, many people, particularly in the Reformed community, have embraced it, provoking a serious crisis in some circles. Some Reformed pastors today hold to a literal six-day creation, while others hold to the framework hypothesis, and yet they otherwise hold to the same system of orthodox theology.


Six-Day Creation

For most of my teaching career, I considered the framework hypothesis to be a possibility. But I have now changed my mind. I now hold to a literal six-day creation, the fourth alternative and the traditional one. Genesis says that God created the universe and everything in it in six twenty-four-hour periods. According to the Reformation hermeneutic, the first option is to follow the plain sense of the text. One must do a great deal of hermeneutical gymnastics to escape the plain meaning of Genesis 1-2. The confession makes it a point of faith that God created the world in the space of six days.


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