Resources On Science (Creation & Evolution), Genesis, and the Bible

(Compiled by David P. Craig, Revised August 22, 2022 – Note some books are in more than one category;  Books with an asterisk “*” = Highly Recommended)

Adam and Eve

  • Caneday, Ardel B., ed. Four Views on the Historical Adam
  • Collins, C. John. Did Adam and Eve Really Exist? Who They Were And Why You Should Care.
  • *Howe, Thomas A. A Critique of William Lane Craigs In Quest of the Historical Adam.
  • *Mortenson, Terry. Searching for Adam: Genesis & the Truth About Man’s Origin.

Artificial Intelligence (Transhumanism)

  • Lennox, John. 2084: Artificial Intelligence and The Future of Humanity.
  • Marks, Robert J. Non-Computable You: What You Do That Artificial Intelligence Never Will.
  • Rana, Franz and Kenneth Samples, et al. Humans 2.0: Scientific, Philosophical, and Theological Perspectives on Transhumanism.
  • Simmons, M.D. Geoffrey. Are We Here To Recreate Ourselves?


  • DeYoung, Donald and John C. Whitcomb. Our Created Moon: Earths Fascinating Neighbor.
  • Faulkner, Danny R. The Expanse of Heaven: Where Creation & Astronomy Intersect.
  • *Gonzalez, Guillermo, and Jay W. Richards. The Privileged Planet: How Our Place In The Cosmos Is Designed For Discovery.
  • Humphreys, D. Russell. Starlight & Time: Solving The Puzzle Of Distant Starlight In A Young Universe.
  • Jastrow, Robert. God and The Astronomers.
  • Lisle, Jason. The Stargazer’s Guide to the Night Sky.
  • Lisle, Jason. Taking Back Astronomy: The Heavens Declare Creation.

Believers (Christians and Theists) Who Are Scientists

  • Ashton, John F., editor. On The Seventh Day: Forty Scientists and Academics Explain Why They Believe in God.
  • Ashton, John and Michael Westcott, eds. The Big Argument: Does God Exist? Twenty-Four Scholars Explore How Science, Archaeology, and Philosophy Haven’t Disproved God.
  • Ashton, John F., editor. Why Fifty Scientists Choose to Believe in Creation.
  • Barrett, Eric C., and David Fisher, eds. Scientists Who Believe: 21 Tell Their Own Stories.
  • Bergman, Jerry and Doug Sharp. Persuaded by the Evidence.
  • Bergman, Jerry. SCIENCE IS THE DOORWAY TO THE CREATOR: Nobel Laureates, Eminent Scientists and Others Who Reject Orthodox Darwinism.
  • Ell, Douglas. Counting To God: A Personal Journey Through Science To Belief.
  • *Flew, Anthony with Roy Abraham Varghese. There is a God: How The Worlds Most Notorious Atheist Changed His Mind.
  • Garte, Sy. The Works Of His Hands: A Scientist’s Journey from Atheism to Faith.
  • Guillen, Michael. Believing Is Seeing: A Physicist Explains How Science Shattered His Atheism and Revealed the Necessity of Faith.
  • Guillen, Michael. Can A Smart Person Believe in God?
  • McDonald, Julie. From Evolutionist to Creationist: The Journey of Colorado River Guide, Tom Vail (Great Christians You Should Know)
  • Morris, Henry. Men of Science, Men of God.
  • O’Connell, Michael R. Finding God In Science: The Extraordinary Evidence For The Soul And Christianity, A Rocket Scientists Gripping Odyssey.
  • Robinson, Stephen and Victoria Lim. Who Is God Really? Two Scientists Discuss Their Faith
  • Roth, Ariel A. Science Discovers God: Seven Convincing Lines of Evidence For His Existence.
  • Schoeder, Gerald L. God According to God: A Physicist Proves We’ve Been Wrong About God All Along.
  • Stafford, Tim. The Adam Quest: Eleven Scientists Explore the Divine Mystery of the Human Race.
  • *Strobel, Lee. The Case for a Creator: A Journalist Investigates Scientific Evidence That Points Toward God.
  • Thomas, Neil. Taking Leave of Darwin: A Longtime Agnostic Discovers the Case for Design.


  • *Axe, Douglas. Undeniable: How Biology Confirms Our Intuition That Life Is Designed.
  • Davis, Percival and Dean H. Kenyon. Of Pandas and People: The Central Question of Biological Origins (Second Edition).
  • Dembski, William A., and Jonathan Wells. The Design of Life: Discovering Signs of Intelligence in Biological Systems.
  • Denton, Michael J. Destiny: How The Laws Of Biology Reveal Purpose In The Universe.
  • Falk, Darrel R. Coming To Peace With Science: Bridging the Worlds Between Faith and Biology (Theistic Evolution Perspective).
  • Rana, Franz. Creating Life in the Lab: How New Discoveries in Synthetic Biology Make a Case for the Creator.
  • Sanford, John. Biological Information – New Perspectives A Synopsis and Limited Commentary.
  • *Wise, Kurt P. Devotional Biology: Learning to Worship the Creator of Organisms.

(The) Bible and Science

  • Brush, Nigel. The Limitations Of Scientific Truth: Why Science Can’t Answer Life’s Ultimate Questions.
  • Carlson, Richard F., ed. Science and Christianity: Four Views.
  • Collins, C. John. Science & Faith: Friends Or Foes?
  • Comfort, Ray. Scientific Facts in the Bible: 100 Reasons to Believe the Bible is Supernatural in Origin.
  • Davidson, Gregg. Friend of Science, Friend of Faith: Listening to God in His Works and Word.
  • Gould, Paul M., and Daniel Ray, eds. The Story of the Cosmos: How The Heavens Declare The Glory of God.
  • Greenwood, Kyle. Scripture and Cosmology: Reading the Bible Between the Ancient World and Modern Science.
  • Guillen, Michael. Amazing Truths: How Science And The Bible Agree.
  • McGrath, Alister.  Enriching Our Vision of Reality: Theology and the Natural Sciences in Dialogue
  • *Morris, Henry M. The Biblical Basis For Modern Science.
  • *Morris, Henry M. The Long War Against God.
  • Poythress, Vern S. Redeeming Science: A God-Centered Approach.
  • Ratzsch, Del. Science and Its Limits.
  • Schroeder, Gerald L. The Hidden Face of God: How Science Reveals the Ultimate Truth.
  • Schroeder, Gerald L. The Science of God: The Convergence of Scientific and Biblical Wisdom.


  • Eberlin, Marcos. Foresight: How the Chemistry of Life Reveals Planning and Purpose.
  • Lennox, John C. Cosmic Chemistry: Do God and Science Mix?
  • Rana, Fazale. The Cell’s Design: How Chemistry Reveals the Creator’s Artistry.
  • Tour, James. Chapter 4: “Are Present Proposals on Chemical Evolutionary Mechanisms Accurately Pointing toward First Life?” in Theistic Evolution: A Scientific, Theological, and Philosophical Critique.
  • Tour, James. Chapter 13: “We’re Still Clueless About The Origin of Life” in The Mystery of Life’s Origin: The Continuing Controversy.

Creation (Origins: Various Views)

  • Ashford, Bruce Riley, and Craig G. Bartholomew. The Doctrine of Creation: A Constructive Kuyperian Approach.
  • Ashton, John F., editor. In Six Days: Why Fifty Scientists Choose to Believe in Creation.
  • Carlson, Richard F., and Tremper Longman III. Science, Creation, And The Bible: Reconciling Rival Theories Of Origins.
  • Christianity Today, eds. The Origins Debate: Evangelical Perspectives on creation, Evolution, and Intelligent Design.
  • Friar, Wayne and Percival Davis. A Case For Creation (Third Edition).
  • Fulkerson, Geoffrey H., and Joel Thomas Chopp. Science And The Doctrine Of Creation: The Approach Of Ten Modern Theologians.
  • *Gange, Robert. Origins and Destiny: A Scientist Examines God’s Handiwork.
  • *Gange, Robert. Portal to Paradise: Historical Events that Confirm Eternal Life.
  • Garner, Paul. The New Creationism: Building Scientific Theories on a Biblical Foundation.
  • Hagopian, David G., ed. The Genesis Debate: Three Views on the Days of Creation.
  • Hanegraaf, Hank. The Creation Answer Book.
  • *Keathley, Kenneth D. and Mark F. Rooker. 40 Questions About Creation and Evolution.
  • *Lisle, Jason. Ultimate Proof of Creation: Resolving The Origins Debate.
  • McFarland, Ian A. From Nothing: A Theology of Creation.
  • Moo, Douglas J., and Jonathan A. Moo. Creation Care: A Biblical Theology of the Natural World.
  • *Moore, John N. How To Teach Origins (Without ACLU Interference).
  • Rana, Fazale & Hugh Ross. Origins of Life: Biblical and Evolutionary Models Face Off.
  • *Ratzsch, Del. The Battle of Beginnings: Why Neither Side Is Winning the Creation- Evolution Debate.
  • *Rau, Gerald. Mapping The Origins Debate: Six Models of The Beginning of Everything.
  • Ross, Hugh. A Matter of Days.
  • Ross, Hugh. Beyond The Cosmos.
  • Ross, Hugh. Creator and The Cosmos.
  • Roth, Ariel. Origins, Linking Science and Scripture.
  • Sproul, R.C. and Keith Mathison. Not A Chance: God, Science, and the Revolt against Reason.
  • Strauss, Michael G. The Creator Revealed: A Physicist Examines The Big Bang and The Bible.
  • Tan, Change Laura and Rob Stadler. The Stairway To Life: An Origin-Of-Life Reality Check.
  • Torrance, Andrew B., and Thomas H. McCall, eds. Knowing Creation: Perspectives from Theology, Philosophy, and Science.
  • *Wallace, J. Warner. Gods Crime Scene: A Cold-Case Detective Examines The Evidence For A Divinely Created Universe.
  • Whorton, Mark, and Hill Roberts. ULTIMATE GUIDE TO CREATION.
  • Wilson, Jonathan R. God’s Good World: Reclaiming The Doctrine of Creation.
  • Wise, Kurt P. and Sheila A. Richardson. Something From Nothing: Understanding What You Believe about Creation and Why.
  • Wood, Todd Charles. The Quest: Exploring Creations Hardest Problems.
  • Wood, Todd Charles, and Kurt P. Wise. Understanding the Pattern of Life: Origins and Organization of the Species.

Creationism (Young Earth Creationism or YEC)

  • Ashton, John F., editor. In Six Days: Why Fifty Scientists Choose to Believe in Creation.
  • *Barrick, William D. by William D. “Young Earth View of Adam” in Four Views on the Historical Adam.
  • Biddle, Daniel A. Answers to the Top 50 Questions about Genesis, Creation, and Noah’s Flood (Debunking Evolution).
  • Chittick, Donald E. The Controversy: Roots of the Creation-Evolution Conflict.
  • Chittick, Donald E. The Puzzle of Ancient Man: Evidence for Advanced Technology in Past Civilizations.
  • DeYoung, Don B. Physical Science and Creation: An Introduction.
  • DeYoung, Don B. Thousands…Not Billions: Challenging an Icon of Evolution Questioning the Age of the Earth.
  • *Dolphin, Lambert T. Jesus: Lord of Time and Space.
  • Douglas, J. Palmer. Why We Believe In Creationism.
  • *Duncan III, J. Ligon and David W. Hall “The 24-Hour View” in The Genesis Debate: Three Views on the Days of Creation.
  • Garner, Paul. The New Creationism: Building Scientific Theories on a Biblical Foundation.
  • Gish, Duane T. Creation Scientists Answer Their Critics.
  • *Ham, Ken. “Young Earth Position” in Four Views on Creation, Evolution, and Intelligent Design.
  • *Hoffmeier, James K. “Genesis as History” in Genesis: History, Fiction, or Neither? Three Views on the Bibles Earliest Chapters.
  • Kofahl, Robert E. and Kelly L. Segraves. The Creation Explanation: A Scientific Alternative to Evolution.
  • *MacArthur, John. The Battle of Beginnings: Creation, Evolution, and The Bible.
  • *Mitchell, Colin. The Case For Creationism.
  • Morris, Henry M. Biblical Creationism: What Each Book of the Bible Teaches About Creation and the Flood.
  • Morris III,  Henry, John D. Morris, et al. Creation Basics and Beyond, 2nd Edition.
  • Morris, Henry M. and John C. Whitcomb. The Genesis Flood: The Biblical Record and Its Scientific Implications.
  • Morris, Henry M. Scientific Creationism.
  • Morris, John D. The Global Flood: Unlocking Earths Geologic History.
  • Morris, John D. The Young Earth: The Real History of the the Earth – Past, Present, and Future.
  • Morris, John D and Frank J. Sherwin. The Fossil Record: Unearthing Natures History of Life.
  • Mortenson. Terry. The Great Turning Point.
  • Nailor, Matt. The Young Earth Creation Model: The True History of Humanity.
  • *Nelson, Paul and Mark Reynolds. “Young Earth Creationism” in Three Views on Creation and Evolution.
  • Numbers, Ronald L. The Creationists: From Scientific Creationism to Intelligent Design (Expanded Edition – This is a history of Creationism from the perspective of an Evolutionist).
  • Reed, John. Rocks Aren’t Clocks: A Critique of the Geological Timescale.
  • Vail, Tom. Grand Canyon: A Different View.
  • Whitcomb, John C. The Early Earth: An Introduction to Biblical Creationism.
  • Whitcomb, John C. The World That Perished: An Introduction to Biblical Catastrophism.
  • Wise, Kurt P. and Sheila A. Richardson. Something From Nothing: Understanding What You Believe about Creation and Why.
  • Wood, Todd Charles. The Quest: Exploring Creations Hardest Problems.
  • Wood, Todd Charles, and Kurt P. Wise. Understanding the Pattern of Life: Origins and Organization of the Species.
  • Young Earth/ Six-Day Creationism Websites: – Ken Ham’s Ministry: ;  Genesis Apologetics: ; Institute for Creation Research (Founded by Henry M. Morris) – ; Creation Ministries International –

Day Age Theory or Progressive Creationism (Old Earth)

  • Gribbin, John. Alone in the Universe: Why Our Planet Is Unique.
  • Hill, Carol, Gregg Davidson, Tim Helble, and Wayne Ranney, editors. The Grand Canyon, Monument to an Ancient Earth: Can Noahs Flood Explain the Grand Canyon?
  • Metaxas, Eric. Is Atheism Dead?
  • Rana, Fazale. Creating Life In The Lab.
  • Rana, Fazale. Dinosaur Blood and the Age of the Earth.
  • Rana, Fazale. The Cells Design.
  • Rana, Fazale & Hugh Ross. Origins of Life: Biblical and Evolutionary Models Face Off.
  • Rana, Fazale & Hugh Ross. Who Was Adam? A Creation Model Approach To The Origin of Humanity.
  • Rana, Fazale R. & Kenneth R. Samples. Humans 2.0: Scientific, Philosophical and Theological Perspectives on Transhumanism.
  • Ross, Hugh. A Matter of Days.
  • Ross, Hugh. Beyond The Cosmos.
  • Ross, Hugh. Creator and The Cosmos.
  • Ross, Hugh. Improbable Planet.
  • Ross, Hugh. More Than A Theory.
  • Ross, Hugh. Navigating Genesis.
  • Ross, Hugh. The Fingerprint of God.
  • Ross, Hugh. Why The Universes Is The Way It Is.
  • Snoke, David. A Biblical Case for an Old Earth.
  • Young, Davis A. and Ralph F. Stearley. The Bible, Rocks and Time: Geological Evidence for the Age of the Earth.
  • Websites Promoting The Day Age Theory: ; and 

Debates over Creation, Evolution, Genesis and Science

  • Behe, Michael J., and T.D. Singh. God, Intelligent Design & Fine Tuning.
  • Cabal, Theodore and Peter Rasor II. Controversy of the Ages: Why Christians Should Not Divide Over The Age Of The Earth.
  • Caneday, Ardel B., ed. Four Views on the Historical Adam.
  • Carlson, Richard F., editor. Science & Christianity: Four Views.
  • Carlson, Richard F., and Tremper Longman III. Science, Creation, And The Bible: Reconciling Rival Theories Of Origins.
  • Christianity Today, eds. The Origins Debate: Evangelical Perspectives on creation, Evolution, and Intelligent Design.
  • Dembski, William A., and Michael Ruse, eds. Debating Design: From Darwin To DNA.
  • Hagopian, David G., ed. The Genesis Debate: Three Views on the Days of Creation.
  • Halton, Charles, ed. Genesis: History, Fiction, or Neither? Three Views on the Bible’s Earliest Chapters.
  • Johnson, Phillip E., and Denis O. Lamoureux. Darwinism Defeated? The Johnson- Lamoureux Debate on Biological Origins.
  • Jones, Preston, ed. Is Belief In God Good, Bad, Or Irrelevant? A Professor And A Punk Rocker Discuss Science, Religion, Naturalism and Christianity (Preston Jones of Brown University and Greg Graffin of the band Bad Religion).
  • *Keathley, Kenneth D. and Mark F. Rooker. 40 Questions About Creation and Evolution.
  • Rasmussen, Joshua and Felipe Leon. Is God The Best Explanation of Things? 
  • *Ratzsch, Del. The Battle of Beginnings: Why Neither Side Is Winning the Creation- Evolution Debate.
  • *Rau, Gerald. Mapping The Origins Debate: Six Models of The Beginning of Everything.
  • Reynolds, John Mark, ed. Three Views on Creation and Evolution.
  • Singh, T.D. God, Intelligent Design and Fine Tuning: A Dialogue Between T.D. Singh and Michael J. Behe.
  • Stewart, Robert B., ed. Intelligent Design: William A. Dembski & Michael Ruse in Dialogue.
  • Stump, James, ed. Four Views on Creation, Evolution, and Intelligent Design.
  • *Wood, Todd Charles, and Darrel R. Falk. The Fool And The Heretic: How Two Scientists Moved Beyond Labels To A Christian Dialogue About Creation and Evolution.
  • Youngblood, Ronald. The Genesis Debate: Persistent Questions About Creation and The Flood.


  • Biddle, Daniel. How Do Dinosaurs Fit into the Bible?
  • Clarey, Tim. Dinosaurs: Marvels of God’s Design – The Science of the Biblical Account
  • DeYoung, Donald B. Dinosaurs and Creation: Questions and Answers.
  • Ham, Ken. The Great Dinosaur Mystery Solved.
  • Institute For Creation Research. Guide to Dinosaurs.
  • Thomas, Brian. Dinosaurs and the Bible.
  • Wieldand, Carl. Dragons of the Deep: Ocean Monsters Past and Present.

Evolutionary Creationism or Theistic Evolution 

  • Allert, Craig D. Early Readings of Genesis One: Patristic Exegesis and Literal Interpretation (BioLogos Books on Science and Christianity).
  • Applegate, Kathryn & J.B. Stump. How I Changed My Mind About Evolution: Evangelicals Reflect on Faith and Science.
  • Barrett, Justin L. Thriving with Stone Age Minds: Evolutionary Psychology, Christian Faith, and the Quest for Human Flourishing (BioLogos Books on Science and Christianity)
  • Bishop, Robert C. and Larry L. Funck. Understanding Scientific Theories of Origins: Cosmology, Geology, and Biology in Christian (BioLogos Books on Science and Christianity).
  • Collins, Francis S. The Language of God: A Scientist Presents Evidence for Belief.
  • Keathley, Kenneth, J.B. Stump, and Joe Aguirre. Old-Earth Or Evolutionary Creation? Discussing Origins with Reasons To Believe and Biologos.
  • Kofahl, Robert E. The Creation Explanation: A Scientific Alternative to Evolution.
  • Haarsma, Deborah B. “Evolutionary Creationism” in Four Views On Creation, Evolution, and Intelligent Design.
  • Haarsma, Deborah B. and Loren D. Haarsma. Origins: Christian Perspectives on Creation, Evolution, and Intelligent Design.
  • Lamoureux, Denis O. I Love Jesus & I Accept Evolution
  • Lamoureux, Denis O. Evolutionary Creation: A Christian Approach to Evolution.
  • Lamoureux, Denis O. “No Historical Adam: Evolutionary Creation View” in Four Views On The Historical Adam.
  • McGrath, Alister. The Science of God.
  • *Moreland, J.P., Stephen C. Meyer, Christopher Shaw, Ann K. Gauger, and Wayne Grudem, eds. Theistic Evolution: A Scientific, Philosophical, and Theological Critique.
  • Ray, Janet Kellogg. Baby Dinosaurs on the Ark?: The Bible and Modern Science and the Trouble of Making It All Fit.
  • Van Till, Howard J. “The Fully Gifted Creation” in Three Views on Creation and Evolution.
  • Van Till, Howard J. A Case For Theistic Evolution. (A Zondervan Digital Short).
  • Websites Promoting Theistic Evolution: ; ; ; and

Evolution (Naturalistic & Theistic) Critiqued

  • Ashton, John. Evolution Impossible: 12 Reasons Why Evolution Cannot Explain the Origin of Life on Earth.
  • Baugh, Carl E. Why Do Men Believe Evolution Against All Odds?
  • Behe, Michael J. A Mousetrap for Darwin: Michael J. Behe Answers His Critics.
  • *Behe, Michael J. Darwins Black Box: The Biochemical Challenge to Evolution
  • Behe, Michael J. The Edge of Evolution: The Search for the Limits of Darwinism.
  • Behe, Michael J. Darwin Devolves: The New Science About DNA That Challenges Evolution.
  • Bergman, Jerry. Censoring the Darwin Skeptics: How Belief in Evolution Is Enforced by Eliminating Dissidents (Volume 3, Second Edition).
  • Bergman, Jerry. Evolution’s Blunders, Frauds and Forgeries.
  • Bergman, Jerry. Fossil Forensics: Separating Fact From Fantasy in Paleontology.
  • Bergman, Jerry. Hitler and the Nazi Darwinian Worldview: How the Nazi Eugenic Crusade for a Superior Race Caused the Greatest Holocaust in World History.
  • Bergman, Jerry. How Darwinism Corrodes Morality: Darwinism, Immorality, Abortion and the Sexual Revolution.
  • Bergman, Jerry. Silencing the Darwin Skeptics: The War Against Theists (Volume 2).
  • Bergman, Jerry. Slaughter of the Dissidents: The Shocking Truth About Killing Careers of Darwin Daughters (Volume 1, Second Edition).
  • Bergman, Jerry. The Dark Side of Darwin: A Critical Analysis of an Icon of Science.
  • Bergman, Jerry. The Darwin Effect: Its Influence On Nazism, Eugenics, Racism, Cammunism, Capitalism, & Sexism.
  • Bergman, Jerry. The Last Pillars of Darwinian Evolution Falsified: Further Evidence Proving Darwinian Evolution Wrong.
  • Bergman, Jerry. The Three Pillars of Evolution Demolished: Why Darwin Was Wrong.
  • Bergman, Jerry. Useless Organs: The Rise And Fall Of A Central Claim Of Evolution.
  • Berlinski, David. The Deniable Darwin.
  • *Bethell, Tom. Darwins House Of Cards: A Journalists Odyssey Through The Darwin Debates.
  • *Carlson, Ron and Ed Decker. “Evolution The Incredible Theory” in Fast Facts on False Teaching.
  • Carter, Robert, ed. Evolution’s Achilles’ Heels: 9 Ph.D. Scientists Explain Evolutions Fatal Flaws—In Areas Claimed To Be Its Greatest Strengths.
  • Comfort, Ray. Intelligent Design Vs. Evolution: Letters to an Atheist.
  • Comfort, Ray. Nothing Created Everything: The Scientific Impossibility of Atheistic Evolution.
  • *Denton, Michael. Evolution: A Theory In Crises.
  • Denton, Michael. Evolution: Still A Theory In Crises.
  • Gale, Barry G. Evolution Without Evidence: Charles Darwin and The Origin of the Species.
  • Gallop, Roger G. Evolution: The Greatest Deception In Modern History.
  • *Gish, Duane T. Evolution: The Fossils Still Say No!
  • *Gish, Duane T. Letter To A Theistic Evolutionist: Sincerely your brother in Christ.
  • Gitt, Werner. Did God Use Evolution?
  • *Grudem, Wayne, ed. A Biblical Case Against Theistic Evolution: Is It Compatible with the Bible?
  • Ham, Ken, and Bodie Hodge, eds. Glass House: Shattering the Myth of Evolution.
  • Ham, Ken. The Lie: Evolution (Revised & Expanded Edition).
  • Hanegraaf, Hank. The FARCE of Evolution.
  • Javor, George. Evidences for Creation: Natural Mysteries Evolution Cannot Explain.
  • *Jeanson, Nathaniel T. Replacing Darwin: The New Origin of Species.
  • *Johnson, Phillip E. Darwin on Trial.
  • *Johnson, Phillip E. Defeating Darwinism by Opening Minds.
  • *Johnson, Phillip E. Reason in the Balance: The Case Against Naturalism in Science, Law Education.
  • *Kethley, Kenneth D., and Mark F. Rooker. 40 Questions About Creation and Evolution.
  • Kinson, John M. God & Evolution: How An Atheist Scientist Changed His Mind.
  • Meyer, Stephen C. Paul A Nelson, et al. Explore Evolution: The Arguments For and Against Neo-Darwinism.
  • Moore, David T. Five Lies Of The Century (Evolution is an established scientific fact).
  • Morrison John. Evolution’s Final Days: The Mounting Evidence Disproving Evolution.
  • *Rhodes, Ron. The 10 Things You Should Know About the Creation vs. Evolution Debate.
  • Richards, Jay, editor. God And Evolution
  • Richards, Lawrence O. It Couldn’t Just Happen: Fascinating Facts About God’s World.
  • Ross, Hugh. What Darwin Didn’t Know.
  • Sarfati, Jonathan. Refuting Evolution.
  • Sarfati, Jonathan. The Greatest Hoax on Earth? Refuting Dawkins on Evolution.
  • Simmons, M.D. Geoffrey. What Darwin Didnt Know: A Doctor Dissects the Theory of Evolution.
  • Sivanesan, Nirushan. Objections to Evolution.
  • Spetner, Lee M. Not by Chance! Shattering the Modern Theory of Evolution.
  • Spetner, Lee M. The Evolution Revolution: Why Thinking People Are Rethinking the Theory of Evolution.
  • Thomas, Neil. Taking Leave Of Darwin: A Longtime Agnostic Discovers the Case for Design.
  • Woodward, Thomas. Doubts About Darwin.


  • Bergman, Jerry. Fossil Forensics: Separating Fact from Fantasy in Paleontology.
  • Lubenow, Marvin L. Bones of Contention: A Creationist Assessment of Human Fossils.
  • Morris, John D. and Frank J. Sherwin. The Fossil Record: Unearthing nature’s History of Life.
  • Parker, Gary. The Fossil Book (Wonders of Creation).

Gap Theory

  • *Barnhouse, Donald Grey. Genesis.
  • Chalmers, Thomas. The Works of Thomas Chalmers: Complete In One Volume.
  • Custance, Arthur C.. Without Form and Void.
  • DeHaan, M.R. Genesis.
  • Pember, G.H. Earths Earliest Ages.
  • Pink, A.W. Gleanings in Genesis.
  • Rimmer, Harry. Modern Science and the Genesis Record.
  • Scofield C.I. Scofield Reference Bible (Notes).

Genesis Studies and Commentaries

  • Arnold, Bill T. Genesis (New Cambridge Bible Commentary).
  • Atkinson, David J. The Message of Genesis 1–11 (The Bible Speaks Today Series).
  • Baldwin, Joyce G. The Message of Genesis 12–50 (The Bible Speaks Today Series).
  • Barnhouse, Donald. Genesis: A Devotional Commentary.
  • Batten, Don and Jonathan Sarfati. 15 Reasons To Take Genesis As History.
  • *Bethancourt, Phillip. Exalting Jesus in Genesis (Christ-Centered Exposition).
  • Blick, Edward F. A Scientific Analysis of Genesis.
  • Blocher, Henri. In the Beginning: The Opening Chapters of Genesis.
  • *Boice, James Montgomery. Genesis: An Expositional Commentary (3 vols.).
  • Birgman, Brian. Jonathan Edwards on Genesis: Hermeneutics, Homiletics, and Theology.
  • Briscoe, D. Stuart. Genesis (The Preacher’s Commentary).
  • Calvin, John. Genesis (Geneva Series of Commentaries).
  • Charles, J. Daryl, ed. Reading Genesis 1-2: An Evangelical Converstation.
  • Cooper, Bill. The Authenticity of the Book of Genesis: A Study in Three Parts.
  • Cooper, Bill. After the Flood: The Early Post-Flood History of Europe Traced Back to Noah.
  • Collins, C. John. Reading Genesis Well: Navigating History, Poetry, Science, and Truth in Genesis 1-11.
  • Copan, Paul and Douglas Jacoby. Origins: The Ancient Impact and Modern Implications of Genesis 1-11.
  • *Currid, John D. Genesis Volume 1 (EP Study Commentary).
  • *Currid, John D. Genesis Volume 2 (EP Study Commentary).
  • Feinberg, Jeffrey Enoch. Walk Genesis! A Messianic Jewish Devotional Commentary (Walk Series).
  • Fruchtenbaum, Arnold. The Book of Genesis.
  • Gangel, Kenneth and Stephen J. Bramer. Holman Old Testament Commentary – Genesis.
  • *Goldingay, John. Genesis (Baker Commentary on the Old Testament: Pentateuch).
  • *Goldingay, John. Genesis for Everyone, Part 1: Chapters 1-16 (The Old Testament for Everyone).
  • *Goldingay, John. Genesis for Everyone, Part 2: Chapters 17-50 (The Old Testament for Everyone).
  • *Greiddanus, Sidney. Preaching Christ from Genesis.
  • *Guzik, David. Genesis: Verse By Verse Commentary.
  • *Ham, Ken. Creation to Babel: Genesis 1-11.
  • Hamilton, Victor P. The Book of Genesis (New International Commentary on the Old Testament Series) 1-17.
  • Hamilton, Victor P. The Book of Genesis (New International Commentary on the Old Testament Series) 18-50.
  • Helm, David R. and Jon M. Dennis. The Genesis Factor: Probing Lifes Big Questions.
  • Jeanson, Nathaniel T. The Lost Treasures of Genesis.
  • *Jordan, James B. Creation In Six Days: A Defense of the Traditional Reading of Genesis One.
  • *Hughes, R. Kent. Genesis: Beginning and Blessing (Preaching the Word).
  • Keiser, Thomas A. Genesis 1-11: In Literary Coherence and Theological Message.
  • *Kidner, Derek. Genesis (Kidner Classic Commentaries).
  • Kline, Meredith G. Genesis: A New Commentary.
  • Lennox, John. Seven Days That Divide The World: The Beginning According To Genesis and Science
  • *Lisle, Jason. Understanding Genesis.
  • *Lisle, Jason. Why Genesis Matters: Christian Doctrine and The Creation Account.
  • Longman III, Tremper. How To Read Genesis.
  • Longman III, Tremper. Genesis (The Story of God Bible Commentary Book 1).
  • *MacArthur, John F. Genesis 1 to 11: Creation, Sin, and the Nature of God (MacArthur Bible Studies)
  • Luther, Martin. Day by Day in Genesis.
  • Luther, Martin. Lectures on Genesis. Volumes 1-8(Luther’s Works).
  • *MacArthur, John F. Genesis 12 to 33: The Father of Israel (MacArthur Bible Studies).
  • *MacArthur, John F. Genesis 34 to 50: Jacob and Egypt (MacArthur Bible Studies)
  • Matthews, Kenneth. The New American Commentary: Genesis 1- 11:26 (New American Commentary) (Volume 1) 
  • Matthews, Kenneth. Genesis 11:27-50:26: An Exegetical and Theological Exposition of Holy Scripture (Volume 1) (The New American Commentary).
  • McIntosh, Andy. Genesis for Today: Showing the Relevance of the Creation/Evolution Debate to Today’s Society.
  • Montgomery, John Warwick. The Quest for Noah’s Ark.
  • *Morris, Henry M. The Genesis Record: A Scientific and Devotional Commentary on the Book of Beginnings.
  • *Leupold, H.C. Exposition of Genesis: Volumes 1 and 2.
  • Lloyd-Jones, Martin. The Gospel in Genesis: From Fig Leaves to Faith.
  • Louth, Andrew, ed. Genesis 1-11 (Ancient Christian Commentary on Scripture Book 1)
  • Morris III, Henry M. Unlocking The Mysteries of Genesis: Explore the Science and Miracles of Creation.
  • Mortenson Terry and Thane H. Ury. Coming to Grips With Genesis.
  • Mortenson Terry. Searching for Adam: Genesis & the Truth About Man’s Origin.
  • Navigators. Genesis (LifeChange).
  • *Pink, A.W. Gleanings In Genesis.
  • Rhodes, Ron. 40 Days Through Genesis: Discover the Story That Started It All.
  • Rodovalho, Robson, and Gerald Schroeder. Scientific Commentaries On Genesis: Explaining The Scientific Phenomena Through The Original Hebrew Text And The Discoveries Of Modern Science.
  • *Ross, Allen. Creation And Blessing: A Guide To The Study And Exposition Of Genesis.
  • Sailhamer, John. Genesis (The Expositor’s Bible Commentary).
  • Sailhamer, John. Genesis Unbound: A Provocative New Look At The Creation Account.
  • Sarfati, Jonathan. The Genesis Account: A Theological, Historical, and Scientific Commentary on Genesis 1-11.
  • *Schaeffer, Francis. Genesis in Space and Time.
  • Schroeder, Gerald L. Genesis and the Big Bang Theory: The Discovery of Harmony Between Modern Science And The Bible.
  • Schroeder, Gerald L. Genesis One: A Physicist Looks at Creation.
  • Sheridan, Mark. , ed. Genesis 12-50 (Ancient Christian Commentary on Scripture Book 1)
  • Steinmann, Andrew E. Genesis: An Introduction and Commentary (Tyndale Old Testament Commentaries Book 1).
  • Vos, Howard. Genesis (Everyday Bible Commentary).
  • Waltke, Bruce and Cathi J. Fredricks. Genesis: A Commentary.
  • Walton, John H. Genesis (The NIV Application Commentary).
  • Walton, John H. The Lost World of Adam and Eve: Genesis 2-3 and the Human Origins Debate (The Lost World Series, vol. 1).
  • Walton, John H. The Lost World of the Flood: Mythology, Theology, and the Deluge Debate (The Lost World Series, Volume 5).
  • Walton, John H. The Lost World of Genesis One: Ancient Cosmology and the Origins Debate (The Lost World Series, vol. 2).
  • Watkin, Christopher. Thinking through Creation: Genesis 1 and 2 as Tools of Cultural Critique.
  • Wenham, Gordon J. Genesis 1-15 (Word Biblical Commentary).
  • Wenham, Gordon J. Genesis 16-50 (Word Biblical Commentary).
  • *Wiersbe, Warren W. Be Basic (Genesis 1-11): Believing the Simple Truth of God’s Word (The BE Series Commentary).
  • *Wiersbe, Warren W. Be Obedient (Genesis 12-25): Learning the Secret of Living by Faith (The BE Series Commentary).
  • *Wiersbe, Warren W. Be Authentic (Genesis 25-50): Exhibiting Real Faith in the Real World (The BE Series Commentary).
  • Wood, Leon J. A Shorter Commentary on Genesis.
  • Young, E.J. In The Beginning: Genesis 1-3 And The Authority of Scripture.
  • Young, E.J. Studies in Genesis One (International library of philosophy and theology: Biblical and theological studies series).


  • Biddle, Daniel. The Ark and the Darkness: Unearthing the Mysteries of Noahs Flood.
  • Bokovov, Vail, Tom, John Hergenrather, Mike Oard. Your Guide to Grand Canyon (True North Series).
  • Bokovoy, Dennis, John Hergenrather, Mike Oard. Your Guide to Yellowstone and Grand Teton National Parks (True North Series).
  • Bokovoy, Dennis, Oard, Mike, Tom Vail, & John Hergenrather. Your Guide to Zion and Bryce Canyon (True North Series).
  • Brand, Leonard, and Art Chadwick. Faith, Reason, & Earth History: A Paradigm of Earth and Biological Origins by Intelligent Design.
  • Clarey, Timothy. Carved in Stone: Geologic Evidence of the Worldwide Flood.
  • Ham, Ken. A Flood of Evidence: 40 Reasons Noah and the Ark Still Matter.
  • Ham, Ken. The Global Flood: A biblical and scientific look at the catastrophe that changed the earth (Answers in Genesis Pocket Guides).
  • Hill, Carol and Gregg Davidson. The Grand Canyon, Monument to an Ancient Earth: Can Noah’s Flood Explain the Grand Canyon? (Old Earth View Presented)
  • Morris, John D. The Geology Book (Wonders of Creation Series).
  • Morris, John D. The Global Flood: Unlocking Earth’s Geologic History.
  • Morris, John. The Young Earth: The Real History of the Earth – Past, Present, and Future (Revised and Expanded).
  • *Snelling, Andrew. Earth’s Catastrophic Past: Geology, Creation, & The Flood.
  • Vail, Tom. Grand Canyon: A Different View.
  • *Whitcomb, John C. and Henry M. Morris. The Genesis Flood: The Biblical Record and Its Scientific Implications.

Intelligent Design

  • Ankerberg, John and High Ross. What Scientific Evidence Proves God Created & Designed the Universe?: Study Guide.
  • Behe, Michael, William A. Dembski, and Stephen C. Meyer. Science And Evidence For Design In The Universe.
  • Bergman, Jerry. Poor Design: An Invalid Argument Against Intelligent Design.
  • Brand, Leonard and Arthur Chadwick. Faith, Reason, & Earth History: A Paradigm of Earth and Biological Origins by Intelligent Design
  • Cassell, Eric. Animal Algorithms: Evolution and the Mysterious Origin of Ingenious Instincts.
  • Comfort, Ray. Intelligent Design Vs. Evolution: Letters to an Atheist.
  • Dembski, William A. Intelligent Design: The Bridge Between Science and Theology.
  • Dembski, William A., ed. Mere Creation: Science, Faith & Intelligent Design.
  • Dembski, William A. The Design Inference: Eliminating Chance Through Small Probabilities.
  • Dembski, William A. The Design Revolution: Answering the Toughest Questions About Intelligent Design.
  • Dembski, William A., and Jonathan Witt. The Intelligent Design Uncensored: An Easy- to-Understand Guide to the Controversy.
  • Dembski, William A. The Comprehensive Guide to Science and Faith: Exploring the Ultimate Questions About Life and the Cosmos.
  • Dembski, William A., and Sean McDowell. Understanding Intelligent Design: Everything You Need to Know in Plain Language.
  • Denton, Michael. Children of Light: The Astonishing Properties of Sunlight that Make Us Possible.
  • Denton, Michael J. Destiny: How The Laws Of Biology Reveal Purpose In The Universe.
  • Denton, Michael. Fire-Maker: How Humans Were Designed to Harness Fire and Transform Our Planet.
  • Denton, Michael. The Miracle of the Cell.
  • Denton, Michael. The Wonder of Water.
  • Eberlin, Marcos. Fore Sight: How the Chemistry of Life Reveals Planning and Purpose.
  • Gonzalez, Guillermo and Jay W. Richards. Creation, Evolution, and Intelligent Design (Christian Answers to Hard Questions).
  • Hedin, Eric. Canceled Science: What Some Atheists Dont Want You to See.
  • *Johnson, Phillip E. Darwin on Trial.
  • Keas, Michael Newton. Unbelievable: 7 Myths About the History and Future of Science and Religion.
  • Klinghoffer, David, ed. The Unofficial Guide To Cosmos: Fact And Fiction In Neil Degrasse Tyson’s Landmark Science Series.
  • Leila, Matti & Jonathan Witt. Heretic: One Scientists Journey From Darwin To Design.
  • Lo, Thomas Y. Evolution and Intelligent Design in a Nutshell.
  • *Meyer, Stephen C. Signature in the Cell: DNA and the Evidence for Intelligent Design.
  • Meyer, Stephen C. Darwins Doubt: The Explosive Origin Of Animal Life And The Case For Intelligent Design.
  • Meyer, Stephen C. “Intelligent Design” in Four Views On Creation, Evolution, and Intelligent Design edited by J.B. Stump.
  • Meyer, Stephen C. Return of the God Hypothesis: Three Scientific Discoveries That Reveal the Mind Behind the Universe.
  • Moreland, J.P. The Creation Hypothesis: Scientific Evidence for an Intelligent Designer.
  • Thaxton, Charles B., ed. The Mystery of Life’s Origin.
  • Thomas, Neil. Taking Leave of Darwin: A Longtime Agnostic Discovers the Case for Design.
  • Travis, Melissa Cain. Science and The Mind of the Maker: What the Conversation Between Faith and Science Reveals About God.
  • *Wells, Jonathan. Icons of Evolution: Science or Myth? Why Much of What We teach About Evolution Is Wrong.
  • Wells, Jonathan. The Myth of Junk DNA.
  • Wells, Jonathan. The Politically Incorrect Guide to Darwinism and Intelligent Design.
  • Wells, Jonathan. Zombie Science: More Icons of Evolution.
  • Woodward, Thomas. Darwin Strikes Back: Defending the Science of Intelligent Design.
  • Websites Promoting Intelligent Design: ; ; ; ; ; 

Naturalism/Materialism/ & Scientism Critiqued

  • Berlinski, David. The Devils Delusion: Atheism and its Scientific Pretensions.
  • Copan, Paul and Charles Taliaferro, eds. The Naturalness of Belief: New Essays on Theisms Rationality.
  • *Crain, Natasha. Faithfully Different: Regaining Biblical Clarity in a Secular Culture.
  • Dembski, William A., and Jonathan Wells. How To Be An Intellectually Fulfilled Atheist (or not).
  • Gange, Robert. Godless Folly: Scientific Observations That Refute Materialism.
  • Gordon, Bruce and William Dembski. The Nature of Nature: Examining the Role of Naturalism in Science.
  • Hunter, Cornelius G. Sciences Blind Spot: The Unseen Religion of Scientific Naturalism.
  • *Johnson, Phillip E. Reason in the Balance: The Case Against Naturalism in Science, Law Education
  • Johnson, Phillip E. The Wedge of Truth: Splitting The Foundations of Naturalism.
  • Lennox, John. Can Science Explain Everything?
  • Lennox, John. Gods Undertaker: Has Science Buried God?
  • *Meyer, Stephen C. Return of the God Hypothesis: Three Scientific Discoveries That Reveal the Mind Behind the Universe.
  • *Moreland, J.P. Christianity and the Nature of Science.
  • *Moreland, J.P. Scientism and Secularism: Learning to Respond to a Dangerous Ideology.
  • Nagel, Thomas. Mind And Cosmos: Why The Materialist Neo-Darwinian Conception of Nature Is Almost Certainly False.
  • Plantinga, Alvin. Where The Conflict Really Lies: Science, Religion, & Naturalism.
  • Shepardson, Andrew J. Whos Afraid of the Unmoved Mover?: Postmodernism and Natural Theology.
  • Stokes, Mitch. How To Be An Atheist: Why Skeptics Arent Skeptical Enough.
  • Turek, Frank. Stealing from God: Why Atheists Need God to Make Their Case.
  • Williams, Richard N. and Daniel N. Robinson, eds. Scientism: The New Orthodoxy.
  • West, John G. editor. The Magicians Twin: C.S. Lewis on Science, Scientism, and Society.

YouTube Videos On Genesis, Creation, Science, the Bible, and Evolution

  • “*Nothing Left to Chance” (48:15) {R.C. Sproul, Ligonier Ministries}.
  • “An Interview with Michael J. Denton” (32:47).
  • “Blind Watchmaker? A Skeptical Look at Darwinism” (1:12:55) {Phillip E. Johnson}.
  • “God, Science & the Big Questions: Leading Christian Thinkers Respond to the New Atheism” (1:45:15) {Held at Biola University – with William Lane Craig, John Lennox, J.P. Moreland, and Hugh Hewitt}.
  • “Hugh Ross and Walter Kaiser vs. Ken Ham and Jason Lisle – Genesis Debate” (3:45:06).
  • “Hugh Ross and John Ankerberg – Genesis and Science” (2:49:36).
  • “*God and Evolution: The Problem with Theistic Evolution” – Stephen C. Meyer (1:02:36).
  • “The Origin of Life: Evolution vs. Design” [Full Debate between evolutionist, Michael Ruse and Reason to Believe’s – Fazale Rana, (2:28:35)].
  • “God & Evolution: A Critique of Theistic Evolution” (2:23:44) [with Stephen Meyer].
  • “Mathematical Challenges to Darwin’s Theory of Evolution with Berlinski, Meyer, and Gelerenter” (57:14).
  • “For the City: J.P. Moreland on “A Christian View of Science” (1:08:36).
  • “Hugh Ross talks Four Views on Creation, Evolution, and Intelligent Design” (Part 1, 33:21).
  • “Creation – Evolution Debates – Dawkins vs. Lennox at Cambridge” (1:21:53).
  • “Intelligent Design Vs. Evolution 2.0 – Perry Marshall debates Stephen Meyer” (1:21:53).
  • “John Lennox: The Question of Science and God – Part 1 (47:34) {Socrates in the City Interview with Eric Metaxas}; Part 2 (58:28).
  • “John Lennox: Seven Days That Divide the World” (1:30:07) {Socrates in the City Lecture Introduction and MC’d by Eric Metaxas}.
  • “Eric Metaxas Interviews Stephen Meyer on Science and Faith” (1:11:42).
  • “Can Science Explain Everything? An Interview with John Lennox (1:30:09).
  • “Eric Metaxas: The Miracle of the Universe” (45:06).
  • “Dr. David Berlinski: The Devil’s Delusion: Atheism and Its Scientific Pretensions” (1:14:57) {Socrates in the City – Introduction by Eric Mataxas}.
  • “Michael Behe – Lee Strobel – Molecular Machines Disprove Evolution” (8:41).
  • “Michael Behe: Darwin Devolves” (1:01:24) {Socrates in the City Interview with Eric Metaxas}.
  • “Irreducible Complexity” (1:42:48) {Michael Behe on the Access Research Network}.
  • “From the Big Bang to Irreducible Complexity – Michael Behe, PhD” (58:18).
  • “What Are The Limits of Darwinism? A Presentation by Dr. Micahel Behe at the University of Toronto” (1:25:34).
  • “Stephen Meyer & Eric Metaxas Discuss Darwin’s Doubt at Socrates in the City” (1:25:48) {Socrates in the City Interview with Eric Metaxas}.
  • “Stephen Meyer: The Return of the God Hypothesis” (1:11:55) {Socrates in the City Interview with Eric Metaxas}.
  • “Ard Louis: Science and Faith” (1:18:45) {SITC Interview with Eric Metaxas}.
  • “Has Science Buried God? Oxford Professor, John Lennox, at SMU (1:11:25).
  • “*James Tour: The Mystery of the Origin of Life” (58:02).
  • “Does Science Make Faith Obsolete? James Tour at Mississippi State University” (1:57:11).
  • “Dr. Tour On The Origin of Life at Syracuse University Cru” (1:30:29).
  • “Science Refutes Evolution – Dr. James Tour” (59:29).
  • “**Dr. James Tour speaking about Evolution” (34:05).
  • “*James Tour: The Origin of Life Has Not Been Explained” (22:57).
  • “The Scientific Case For Intelligent Design – William Dembski, PhD” (45:34).
  • “Information and the End of Materialism – William Dembski, PhD” (44:09).
  • “Molecular Machines and the Death of Darwinism – Dembski, Wells, Nelson, Macosko” (43:15).
  • “Detecting Design in Biology” (1:51:31) {Access Research Network}.
  • “Hugh Ross – Origin of Life” (1:13:01).
  • “Hugh Ross – Beyond the Cosmos: How Science Reveals God’s Trans-Dimensional Power” (1:13:11).
  • “Hugh Ross vs. Ken Ham – TBN Debate” (1:14:18).
  • “Hugh Ross vs. Kent Hovind How Old Is The Earth” (2:35:43).
  • “Does Science Prove God’s Glory? Dr. Hugh Ross Regent University (29:27).
  • “Hugh Ross – The Flood of Noah” (1:09:14).
  • “Hugh Ross – Hubble Confirms Universe Expanding Faster Than Expected” (1:47:11).
  • “Inner Life of the Cell (Full Version)” (7:59).
  • “The Failure of Darwin’s Theory” (28:31) {Stephen Meyer on John Ankerberg}.
  • “Harmony Between Christianity and Science Michael Guillen” (8:02).
  • “Francis Collins: How I Became a Christian” (27:53).
  • “10 Top Christian Scientists on Science and Faith” (6:28).
  • “Stephen C. Meyer The Ben Shapiro Show Sunday Special Episode 43” (59:38).
  • “How Darwinists Think Lecture and Q&A Phillip E. Johnson” (1:39:51).
  • “Phillip E. Johnson on Darwinism” (57:58).
  • “Darwinism on Trial” (1:40:59) {Phillip E. Johnson}.
  • “Focus on Darwinism – An Interview with Phillip E. Johnson” (54:08).
  • “One Nation Under Darwin” (1:32:09) {Phillip E. Johnson}.
  • “Debate: Darwinism: Science or Naturalistic Philosophy? Phillip Johnson vs William Provine” (1:46:33).
  • “Darwinism: Science or Philosophy – Phillip E. Johnson” (58:06).
  • *“The New History of the Human Race” (Answers in Genesis: 26 videos approximately 30 minutes each featuring Ken Ham interviewing Dr. Nathaniel Jeanson’s genetical research based on his book Traced).

DVD’s Or Amazon Prime Available for Purchase:

  • *Beyond Is Genesis History? (2017-2018: 
  • *Debunking Evolution: What Every Christian Student Should Know (2016: Good for Families with young or teenagers to watch together; Two Teens interact with all the main issues related to Genesis and Science – humorous, sometimes corny, but helpful).
  • *Debunking The 7 Myths that Deny the Historicity of Genesis, Creation, and Noah’s Flood: A Video-based training program to help students keep their faith in college (2019).
  • *Dismantled: A Scientific Deconstruction of The Theory of Evolution (2020: Features Creationist Scientists: Drs. John Sanford, Georgia Purdon, Andrew Snelling, Jaso Lisle, and Nathaniel Jeanson).
  • *Evolution’s Achilles’ Heels (2014: 15 PhD scientists reveal the fatal flaws of evolutionary theory).
  • Genesis: Paradise Lost (2017: Features Answers in Genesis scientists employing scientific and historical research that makes a solid case for the historicity of Genesis).
  • *Incredible Creatures That Defy Evolution (2000, 2002, and 2006: Parts 1-3: Features Dr. Jobe Martin who was a professor of Dentistry at Baylor University and an evolutionist; these three videos show how the study of biology convinced him of the biblical creationist view – great series to watch with kids/teenagers as each video features amazing animals).
  • Is Genesis History? (2017: Features Del Tackett and a dozen scientists as they explore the science behind the history recorded in Genesis. From rock layers to fossils, from lions to stars, from the Bible to artifacts – very well done!).


Genesis 1-11 vol 1 Boice


In the beginning God created the heavens and the earth. Now the earth was formless and empty, darkness was over the surface of the deep, and the Spirit of God was hovering over the waters. – Genesis 1:1-2

In The Invisible War Donald Grey Barnhouse gives an illustration of what has come to be know widely as the gap theory of evolution. A motorist was driving through America’s great southwest and had planned to arrive at the Grand Canyon of Colorado from the South and then proceed on across it northward into Utah.

He shared his plans with a friend who knew the area, but his friend immediately pointed out that what he wanted to do was impossible. On the map it looked as if he could drive north across the canyon, but that tiny fifteen-mile gap, which barely shows on the map, is actually a gigantic and impassable chasm. One can get north only by taking a detour over hundreds of miles of hot desert roads.

According to the gap theory, the first two verses of Genesis are like that. They appear to be continuous, but in between there is actually a long but indeterminate period in which the destruction of an original world and the unfolding of the geological ages can be located.

A Popular Viewpoint

This theory is also called the restitution or recreation theory. Arthur C. Custance, who has written an excellent book in the theory’s defense, traces it to certain early Jewish writers, some of the church fathers, and even to some ancient Sumerian and Babylonian documents. It crops up in the Middle Ages as well. It was in Scotland at the beginning of the last century, through the work of the capable pastor and writer Thomas Chalmers, that the idea gained real coherence and visibility.

Chalmers was anxious to show that the emerging data concerning the geological ages was not incompatible with sound biblical exposition. So according to him, Genesis 1:1 tells of God’s creation of an original world in which all things were good, for God cannot create that which is bad. Lucifer ruled this world for God. Lucifer sinned. God judged the world along with Lucifer, as a result of which the earth became the formless, desolate mass we discover it to be in Genesis 1:2 (“Now the earth was formless and empty, darkness was over the surface of the deep”). The earth continued like this for indeterminate ages in which the various rock strata developed. It was only at the end of this period that God intervened to bring new order out of the prevailing chaos, which is what Genesis 1:3–31 describes. These verses actually describe a recreation.

Chalmers wrote in the early 1800s, but his views thrived around the turn of the century as they were picked up by the various writers of early fundamentalism. The best known was G. H. Pember, whose book on the theory, Earth’s Earliest Ages (1876), went through many editions. My own copy is the fourteenth.

Pember wrote, “It is thus clear that the second verse of Genesis describes the earth as a ruin; but there is no hint of the time which elapsed between creation and this ruin. Age after age may have rolled away, and it was probably during their course that the strata of the earth’s crust were gradually developed. Hence we see that geological attacks upon the Scriptures are altogether wide of the mark, are a mere beating of the air. There is room for any length of time between the first and second verses of the Bible. And again, since we have no inspired account of the geological formations, we are at liberty to believe that they were developed just in the order in which we find them. The whole process took place in preadamite times, in connection, perhaps, with another race of beings, and, consequently, does not at present concern us” (G. H. Pember, Earth’s Earliest Ages and Their Connection with Modern Spiritualism and Theosophy. London and Glasgow: Pickering & Inglis, n.d., 28).

In subsequent pages Pember developed his theory of the fall of Satan, the influence of demons in the world prior to Noah, and the relevance of this for the resurgence of spiritism that he observed in his day.

Arthur W. Pink held Chalmers’s view and doubtless also learned from Pember. He wrote, “The unknown interval between the first two verses of Genesis 1, is wide enough to embrace all the prehistoric ages which may have elapsed; but all that took place from Genesis 1:3 onwards transpired less than six thousand years ago” (Arthur W. Pink, Gleanings in Genesis. Chicago: Moody Press, 1950, 11. Original edition 1922).

Harry Rimmer was another influential writer. In 1941 he authored a book entitled Modern Science and the Genesis Record. In it he said, “The original creation of the heaven and the earth, then, is covered in the first verse of Genesis. Only God knows how many ages rolled by before the ruin wrought by Lucifer fell upon the earth, but it may have been an incalculable span of time. Nor can any students say how long the period of chaos lasted; there is not even a hint given. But let us clearly recognize in these studies that Moses, in the record of the first week of creation, is telling the story of God’s reconstruction; rather than the story of an original creation” (Harry Rimmer, Modern Science and the Genesis Record (Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 1941, 28).

The single most effective teacher of this view was C. I. Scofield, who included it in his notes on Genesis in the astonishingly popular Scofield Reference Bible. From there it became the almost unquestioned view of fundamentalism, though, as I have already pointed out, The Fundamentals themselves contain an article by James Orr that almost embraces evolution. In more recent times various forms of this theory have been held by C. S. Lewis, M. R. DeHaan, Donald Grey Barnhouse, and others. Francis Schaeffer acknowledged parts of it as a possibility (Schaeffer, Genesis in Space and Time, 62).

Exegetical Strength

There is widespread opposition to the gap theory today, even on the part of very conservative writers. But these often dismiss it too easily, without adequate attention to the biblical data on which the gap theorists built. This theory may be wrong, but it is not possible to dismiss it cavalierly.

What are the lines of evidence for this theory? The first and by far the most important is its exegetical or biblical base. Indeed, without this, Chalmers, Pember, and the others would have had no case at all. The exegetical argument has a number of parts.

First, in the Masoretic text of Genesis, in which ancient Jewish scholars attempted to incorporate a sufficient number of “indicators” to guide the reader in proper pronunciation and interpretation of the text, there is a small mark known as a rebia following verse 1. The rebia is a disjunctive accent. That is, it serves to inform the reader that there is a break in the narrative at this point and that he should pause before going on to the next verse. The rebia might also indicate that the conjunction that begins verse 2, a waw, should be translated “but” rather than the more common “and.” (This has bearing on how the second verse should be translated because, as we will see, it could be rendered “But the earth became a ruin.”) To be sure, the rebia was not in the original text of Genesis and therefore represents only the considered judgment of the Masoretes, but their opinion may guide us to a correct interpretation.

Second, there is the structure of the creation account itself. Each of the accounts of the activity of God on one of the creative days ends with the words, “And there was evening, and there was morning—the first [second, third, fourth, fifth, or sixth] day.” In other words, there is a very marked parallelism. Moreover, on the second, third, fourth, fifth, and sixth days, those same sections begin, “And God said. …” It is only natural, therefore, to assume that the account of the first day of creation begins, not with verse 1 but with verse 3 where the parallel phrase occurs (“And God said, ‘Let there be light’ ”). If this is so, then the first two verses stand apart from the rest of the account and describe a creation prior to the work of God on the first day.

Third, there is the possibility (some would say necessity) of translating the Hebrew verb “to be” (hayah), which occurs in verse 2, not “was” but “became.” So the verse would read, “But the earth became formless [that is, a ruinous mass] and empty [that is, devoid of life].” It is also possible that the verb is to be taken as pluperfect with the meaning, “But the earth had become… .”

The arguments concerning the meaning of this basic Hebrew verb are long and tortuous, not ones that most people would readily or cheerfully follow. But they boil down to the point that this is at least a possibility and perhaps even a strong possibility. Those who oppose this view—Bernard Ramm, in The Christian View of Science and Scripture, is one—argue that those adopting it make a novel and very questionable interpretation that rests on an infrequent and secondary meaning of the verb. But it is not at all evident that it is that infrequent or secondary. Let us take the matter of whether “became” is a secondary meaning first. In Arthur Custance’s defense of the gap theory’s exegetical base, the point is made that the Hebrew verb hayah, while frequently translated “was” rather than “became,” nevertheless primarily means “became” for the simple reason that the Hebrew language does not really need a verb for “be.” That is, if a Hebrew-speaking person wanted to say “The man is good,” he would not use a verb at all but would simply say, “The man good.” The verb would be implied. This sentence differs from the descriptive phrase “The good man,” because the Hebrew way of saying that is “The man the good.”

In his critique Ramm declares that “the Hebrews did not have a word for became, but the verb to be did service for to be and become” (Bernard Ramm, The Christian View of Science and Scripture. Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 1954, 202).

But as Custance points out, the reverse would be more nearly correct, namely, that “they did not need a word for ‘to be’ in the simple sense, so made their word for become serve for to be and become” (Arthur C. Custance, Without Form and Void: A Study of the Meaning of Genesis 1:2. Brockville, Ont.: Doorway Papers, 1970, 104). In Custance’s judgment the word should be translated “became” unless there are reasons to the contrary.

The other matter is frequency. John Whitcomb has written that there are only six examples in the entire Pentateuch of the verb hayah being rendered “became.” This seems to be an error. Custance claims that there are at least seventeen cases in Genesis alone, but that is in the King James Version. Other versions give the translation in other instances. The Latin Vulgate has the equivalent thirteen times in just the first chapter. Some sample verses:

Genesis 3:1—“Now the serpent had become more subtle than any beast of the field.” Most versions say “was,” but this verse probably indicates that the serpent became subtle or crafty as the result of Satan’s use of him for the purpose of tempting Eve.

Genesis 3:20—“Eve became the mother of all living.” The King James Version says “was,” but this is strange since no children had been born to her at this time. The New International Version recognizes the problem and translates the verse accordingly: “Adam named his wife Eve, because she would become the mother of all the living.”

Genesis 21:20—“And God was with the lad [Ishmael]; and he grew, and dwelt in the wilderness, and became an archer.”

Genesis 37:20—“We shall see what will become of his [Joseph’s] dream.”

These translations are not beyond challenge, of course. But they do show the frequency of this possible translation of this verb. Custance’s own conclusion is, “By and large, therefore, I suggest that the rendering, ‘But the earth had become a ruin and a desolation,’ is a rendering which does more justice to the original and deserves more serious consideration as an alternative than it has been customary to afford it in recent years” (Ibid, 116).

Fourth, the words “formless and empty” (tohu wa bohu) may be verbal clues to a preadamic judgment of God on our planet. True, the words have various shades of meaning and do not necessarily indicate the destruction of something that had formerly been beautiful. But they sometimes do. Besides, there is the important text in Isaiah 45:18 that says, using the words of Genesis 1:2, that God did not create the world a ruin. If this is a direct reference to Genesis, as it may be, it says that God did not create the world in the state portrayed in Genesis 1:2. (On the other hand, it may simply mean that God did not create the world to be desolate but rather created it to be inhabited, as in the New International Version translation.)

When Did Satan Fall?

This message has dealt largely with the exegetical support for the gap theory, because it is the point from which its adherents argue. These arguments have not been taken seriously enough by those who oppose the theory. But this is not to suggest that there are no other lines of support for the reconstructionists’ view. A second line of support is theological.

This has to do with the fall of Satan. From Genesis 3 we learn that evil was already in existence at the time of Adam and Eve’s creation, for Satan was there to tempt Eve. Besides, there are texts that suggest, not always clearly, that there was an earlier fall of Satan, followed by a judgment on Satan and those angels (now demons) who sinned with him. Of course, the fall of Satan may have occurred without any relationship to earth. But he is called “the prince of this world” and seems to have a special relationship to it. Is it not possible, even reasonable, that he may have ruled the world for God in an earlier period of earth’s history—if there was such a period? And if this is so, couldn’t a fall and judgment fit between Genesis 1:1 and Genesis 1:2? If not there, where does the fall come in? The only other option would be before creation itself, which would put the creation of Satan before anything else we know.

There is also the problem of the first appearances of death. If the fossils indicate anything, they indicate a period of struggle, disease, and death prior to man’s appearance. But if death came through the sin of Adam, how can death be evidenced in the fossil record unless the death witnessed is the product of God’s judgment on the sin of an earlier world and race? There is another explanation of this that the creationist school supplies, namely, that the fossils were created by the flood and so came after Adam. But the argument at this point—while it will not speak to creationists—should speak to most other schools of thought.

Some Lingering Difficulties

What should we think of this theory? It has commended itself to many in recent generations. It is a serious attempt to be biblical. It seems to solve the problem of the long geological ages. Should we adopt it? We should consider it seriously for each of the reasons just given, but before we adopt it we should also consider the difficulties.

One serious criticism of the gap theory is that it gives one of the grandest and most important passages in the Bible an unnatural and perhaps even a peculiar interpretation. This is hardly a conclusive argument, but it is probably the point at which most other Bible students and scholars begin to hesitate. Ramm puts it like this: “From the earliest of Bible interpretation this passage has been interpreted by Jews, Catholics and Protestants as the original creation of the universe. In seven majestic days the universe and all of life is brought into being. But according to Rimmer’s view the great first chapter of Genesis, save for the first verse, is not about original creation at all, but about reconstruction. The primary origin of the universe is stated in but one verse. This is not the most telling blow against the theory, but it certainly indicates that something has been lost to make the six days of creation anticlimactic” (Ramm, Christian View, 201).

This same argument may also be stated biblically, which Ramm does not do but which would presumably have more weight with the gap theory advocates. To give just one example, we read in Exodus 20:11, “For in six days the Lord made the heavens and the earth, the sea, and all that is in them, but he rested on the seventh day.” A person might point out that the verb used here is “made,” not the powerful Hebrew verb “created” (baraʾ), and that this allows for a recreation or reforming. But that aside, the verse does sound like a description of an original creation. “It neither states nor implies recreation to most people” (L. Duane Thuman, How to Think about Evolution & Other Bible-Science Controversies . Downers Grove, Ill.: InterVarsity Press, 1978, 121).

Second, the exegetical data, while impressive, is nevertheless far from certain. And it must be certain if we are to be expected to embrace such an unusual theory. I have argued above that critics of the gap theory have been far too cavalier in dismissing its supporters’ exegetical arguments, but those arguments are still not clearly right. The Hebrew verb hayah may mean “became,” but there is no doubt that it is also correctly translated “was” and that far more frequently. Again, waw may even mean “but,” although it more commonly means “and.” And as for tohu wa bohu, this may simply mean that the land in question was uninhabitable. Whether that condition was the result of God’s judgment on the earth or was due to some other factor is to be determined from the context and not from the words themselves (cf. Isa. 24:1 and 45:18; Jer. 4:23–26). It is significant in this regard that, although the New International Version supports the possibility of translating the Hebrew hayah as “become” in a footnote to Genesis 1:2, it does not render Isaiah 45:18 in a way that would support the gap theory.

Third, the gap theory does not really settle the problem posed by geology. Geology shows us successive strata of the earth’s crust containing fossils of earlier life-forms. Advocates of the gap theory wish to account for these in the supposed break between Genesis 1:1 and 1:2. But at which point in this break did the judgment of God enter in? If it came after the laying down of the fossil evidence, then death was in the world before judgment. If the judgment came first, then the conditions arising from that judgment could not be as the second verse of Genesis describes them (a chaotic world submerged in darkness), for in such a world no plant or animal life could survive. The only escape from this dilemma is to imagine a gradually descending or advancing judgment in which the various forms of life are progressively snuffed out, but this is the precise opposite of what the geological strata seem to indicate. They show a progressive development of life from simpler to more complex forms.

Some gap theorists have seen this problem and have appealed to the flood for producing the geological evidence. Rimmer appeals to both the earlier ages and the flood. But if this is the case, we do not need the gap. The impression left is that the theory has not been carried through sufficiently to provide us with a clearly workable model. It may be possible. But we will want to consider the other views of creation before we settle on this as the only true Christian possibility.

About the Preacher

Boice JM in pulpit

James Montgomery Boice, Th.D., (July 7, 1938 – June 15, 2000) was a Reformed theologian, Bible teacher, and pastor of Tenth Presbyterian Church in Philadelphia from 1968 until his death. He is heard on The Bible Study Hour radio broadcast and was a well-known author and speaker in evangelical and Reformed circles. He also served as Chairman of the International Council on Biblical Inerrancy for over ten years and was a founding member of the Alliance of Confessing Evangelicals. James Boice was one of my favorite Bible teachers. Thankfully – many of his books and expositions of Scripture are still in print and more are becoming available. The sermon above was adapted from Chapter 7 in Genesis 1-11: An Expositional Commentaryvol. 1: Creation and Fall. Grand Rapids: Baker, 2006.

Under Dr. Boice’s leadership, Tenth Presbyterian Church became a model for ministry in America’s northeastern inner cities. When he assumed the pastorate of Tenth Church there were 350 people in regular attendance. At his death the church had grown to a regular Sunday attendance in three services of more than 1,200 persons, a total membership of 1,150 persons. Under his leadership, the church established a pre-school for children ages 3-5 (now defunct), a high school known as City Center Academy, a full range of adult fellowship groups and classes, and specialized outreach ministries to international students, women with crisis pregnancies, homosexual and HIV-positive clients, and the homeless. Many of these ministries are now free-standing from the church.

Dr. Boice gave leadership to groups beyond his own organization. For ten years he served as Chairman of the International Council on Biblical Inerrancy, from its founding in 1977 until the completion of its work in 1988. ICBI produced three classic, creedal documents: “The Chicago Statement on Biblical Inerrancy,” “The Chicago Statement on Biblical Hermeneutics” and “The Chicago Statement on the Application of the Bible to Contemporary Issues.” The organization published many books, held regional “Authority of Scripture” seminars across the country, and sponsored the large lay “Congress on the Bible I,” which met in Washington, D.C., in September 1987. He also served on the Board of Bible Study Fellowship.

He founded the Alliance of Confessing Evangelicals (Alliance) in 1994, initially a group of pastors and theologians who were focused on bringing the 20th and now 21st century church to a new reformation. In 1996 this group met and wrote the Cambridge Declaration. Following the Cambridge meetings, the Alliance assumed leadership of the programs and publications formerly under Evangelical Ministries, Inc. (Dr. Boice) and Christians United for Reformation (Horton) in late 1996.

Dr. Boice was a prodigious world traveler. He journeyed to more than thirty countries in most of the world’s continents, and he taught the Bible in such countries as England, France, Canada, Japan, Australia, Guatemala, Korea and Saudi Arabia. He lived in Switzerland for three years while pursuing his doctoral studies.

Dr. Boice held degrees from Harvard University (A.B.), Princeton Theological Seminary (B.D.), the University of Basel, Switzerland (D. Theol.) and the Theological Seminary of the Reformed Episcopal Church (D.D., honorary).

A prolific author, Dr. Boice had contributed nearly forty books on a wide variety of Bible related themes. Most are in the form of expositional commentaries, growing out of his preaching: Psalms (1 volume), Romans (4 volumes), Genesis (3 volumes), Daniel, The Minor Prophets (2 volumes), The Sermon on the Mount, John (5 volumes, reissued in one), Ephesians, Phillippians and The Epistles of John. Many more popular volumes: Hearing God When You Hurt, Mind Renewal in a Mindless Christian Life, Standing on the Rock, The Parables of Jesus, The Christ of Christmas, The Christ of the Open Tomb and Christ’s Call to Discipleship. He also authored Foundations of the Christian Faith a 740-page book of theology for laypersons. Many of these books have been translated into other languages, such as: French, Spanish, German, Japanese, Chinese and Korean.

He was married to Linda Ann Boice (born McNamara), who continues to teach at the high school they co-founded.

Sources: Taken directly from the Aliance of Confessing Evangelicals’ Website

Boice’s Books:

from the Tenth Presbyterian Church website
1970 Witness and Revelation in the Gospel of John (Zondervan)
1971 Philippians: An Expositional Commentary (Zondervan)
1972 The Sermon on the Mount (Zondervan)
1973 How to Live the Christian Life (Moody; originally, How to Live It Up,
1974 Ordinary Men Called by God (Victor; originally, How God Can Use
1974 The Last and Future World (Zondervan)
1975-79 The Gospel of John: An Expositional Commentary (5 volumes,
Zondervan; issued in one volume, 1985; 5 volumes, Baker 1999)
1976 “Galatians” in the Expositor’s Bible Commentary (Zondervan)
1977 Can You Run Away from God? (Victor)
1977 Does Inerrancy Matter? (Tyndale)
1977 Our Sovereign God, editor (Baker)
1978 The Foundation of Biblical Authority, editor (Zondervan)
1979 The Epistles of John: An Expositional Commentary (Zondervan)
1979 Making God’s Word Plain, editor (Tenth Presbyterian Church)
1980 Our Savior God: Studies on Man, Christ and the Atonement, editor (Baker)
1982-87 Genesis: An Expositional Commentary (3 volumes, Zondervan)
1983 The Parables of Jesus (Moody)
1983 The Christ of Christmas (Moody)
1983-86 The Minor Prophets: An Expositional Commentary (2 volumes,
1984 Standing on the Rock (Tyndale). Reissued 1994 (Baker)
1985 The Christ of the Open Tomb (Moody)
1986 Foundations of the Christian Faith (4 volumes in one, InterVarsity
Press; original volumes issued, 1978-81)
1986 Christ’s Call to Discipleship (Moody)
1988 Transforming Our World: A Call to Action, editor (Multnomah)
1988, 98 Ephesians: An Expositional Commentary (Baker)
1989 Daniel: An Expositional Commentary (Zondervan)
1989 Joshua: We Will Serve the Lord (Revell)
1990 Nehemiah: Learning to Lead (Revell)
1992-94 Romans (4 volumes, Baker)
1992 The King Has Come (Christian Focus Publications)
1993 Amazing Grace (Tyndale)
1993 Mind Renewal in a Mindless Age (Baker)
1994-98 Psalms (3 volumes, Baker)
1994 Sure I Believe, So What! (Christian Focus Publications)
1995 Hearing God When You Hurt (Baker)
1996 Two Cities, Two Loves (InterVarsity)
1996 Here We Stand: A Call from Confessing Evangelicals, editor with
Benjamin E. Sasse (Baker)
1997 Living By the Book (Baker)
1997 Acts: An Expositional Commentary (Baker)
1999 The Heart of the Cross, with Philip Graham Ryken (Crossway)
1999 What Makes a Church Evangelical?
2000 Hymns for a Modern Reformation, with Paul S. Jones
2001 Matthew: An Expositional Commentary (2 volumes, Baker)
2001 Whatever Happened to the Gospel of Grace? (Crossway)
2002 The Doctrines of Grace, with Philip Graham Ryken (Crossway)
2002 Jesus on Trial, with Philip Graham Ryken (Crossway)


1985 “The Future of Reformed Theology” in David F. Wells, editor,
Reformed Theology in America: A History of Its Modern Development
1986 “The Preacher and Scholarship” in Samuel T. Logan, editor, The
Preacher and Preaching: Reviving the Art in the Twentieth Century
(Presbyterian and Reformed)
1992 “A Better Way: The Power of Word and Spirit” in Michael Scott
Horton, editor, Power Religion: The Selling Out of the Evangelical Church?
1994 “The Sovereignty of God” in John D. Carson and David W. Hall,
editors, To Glorify and Enjoy God: A Commemoration of the 350th
Anniversary of the Westminster Assembly (Banner of Truth Trust)

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