“Discerning God’s Will” by R.C. Sproul


“It is the will of God.”

How easily these words fall from the lips or flow from the pen. How difficult it is to penetrate exactly what they mean. Few concepts in theology generate more confusion than the will of God.

One problem we face is rooted in the multifaceted way in which the term “will” functions in biblical expressions. The Bible uses the expression “will of God” in various ways. We encounter two different Greek words in the New Testament (boulē and thēlema), both of which are capable of several nuances. They encompass such ideas as the counsel of God, the plan of God, the decrees of God, the disposition or attitude of God, as well as other nuances. Further distinctions in historical theology add to the labyrinth of meanings attached to the simple formula “the will of God.”

Augustine once remarked, “In some sense, God wills everything that happens.” The immediate question raised by this comment is, In what sense? How does God “will” the presence of evil and suffering? Is He the immediate cause of evil? Does He do evil? God forbid. Yet evil is a part of His creation. If He is sovereign over the whole of His creation, we must face the conundrum, How is evil related to the divine will?

Questions like this one make distinctions necessary—sometimes fine distinctions, even technical distinctions—with respect to will of God. Some of those distinctions made by theologians include the following:

(1) The Decretive Will of God

This is sometimes described as the sovereign efficacious will, by which God brings to pass whatever He pleases by His divine decree. An example of this may be seen in God’s work of creation. When God said, “Let there be light,” He issued a divine imperative. He exercised His sovereign efficacious will. It was impossible for the light not to appear. It appeared by the sheer necessity of consequence. That is, the decretive will can have no other effect, no other consequence than what God sovereignly commands. He did not request the light to shine. Nor did He coax, cajole, or woo it into existence. It was a matter of the authority and power vainly sought by the king of Siam when he said to Anna (to no avail), “So let it be said; so let it be done.” No creature enjoys this power of will. No man’s will is that efficacious. Men issue decrees and then hope they will bring about their desired effects. God alone can decree with the necessity of consequence.

(2) The Preceptive Will of God

The preceptive will of God relates to the revealed commandments of God’s published law. When God commands us not to steal, this “decree” does not carry with it the immediate necessity of consequence. Where it was not possible for the light to refuse to shine in creation, it is possible for us to refuse to obey this command. In a word, we steal.

We must be careful not to make too much of this distinction. We must not be lulled into thinking that the preceptive will of God is divorced from His decretive will. It is not as though the preceptive will has no effect or no necessity of consequence. We may have the power to disobey the precept. We do not have the power to disobey it with impunity. Nor can we annul it by our disregard. His law remains intact whether we obey it or disobey it. Even this law cannot ultimately be frustrated. There will come a time when no one will steal. The sinner in hell will be forcibly restrained from stealing. The saint in heaven, in the glorified state of perfected sanctification, will be totally disinclined to theft.

In one sense the preceptive will is part of the decretive will. God sovereignly and efficaciously decrees that His law be established. It is established and nothing can disestablish it. His law exists as surely as the light by which we read it.

Yet we still observe the acute difference between the light’s obedience to God’s creative decree and our disobedience to God’s moral, preceptive decree. How do we account for this?

A common way to resolve this conundrum is by appeal to a distinction between the sovereign will of God and His permissive will.

(3) The Permissive Will of God

The distinction between the sovereign will of God and the permissive will of God is fraught with peril, and it tends to generate untold confusion.

In ordinary language the term permission suggests some sort of positive sanction. To say that God “allows” or “permits” evil does not mean that He sanctions it in the sense that He grants approval to it. It is easy to discern that God never permits sin in the sense that He sanctions it in His creatures.

What is usually meant by divine permission is that God simply lets it happen. That is, He does not directly intervene to prevent its happening. Here is where grave danger lurks. Some theologies view this drama as if God were impotent to do anything about human sin. This view makes man sovereign, not God. God is reduced to the roll of spectator or cheerleader, by which God’s exercise in providence is that of a helpless Father who having done all He can do, must now sit back and simply hope for the best. He permits what He cannot help but permit because He has no sovereign power over it. This ghastly view is not merely a defective view of theism; it is unvarnished atheism.

Obviously the motive behind this specious theology is virtuous. It is fueled by a desire to exonerate God from any culpability for the presence of evil in the world. I am sure God is pleased by the sentiment but repulsed by a theory that would strip Him of His very deity. Calvin said of this:

“Hence the distinction was devised between doing and permitting because to many this difficulty seemed inexplicable, that Satan and all the impious are so under God’s hand and power that He directs their malice to whatever end seems good to Him, and uses their wicked deeds to carry out His judgments. And perhaps the moderation of those whom the appearance of absurdity alarms would be excusable, except that they wrongly try to clear God’s justice of every sinister mark by upholding a falsehood” (Institutes I.xviii.1).

Calvin locates the scurrilous untruth in the faulty distinction between willing and permitting:

“It seems absurd to them for man, who will soon be punished for his blindness, to be blinded by God’s will and command. Therefore they escape by the shift that this is done only with God’s permission, not also by His will; but He, openly declaring that He is the doer, repudiates that evasion. However, that men can accomplish nothing … except what He has already decreed with Himself and determines by His secret direction, is proved by innumerable and clear testimonies” (Ibid.).

Calvin goes on to enumerate several passages that support his thesis, looking to Job, Satan and the Sabeans, the role of Pilate and Judas in the execution of Christ, the role of Absalom in Jewish history, etc.

The key phrase is this: “Therefore they escape by the shift that this is done only with God’s permission, not also by His will.”

Here the operative word is only. If we are in any just way to speak of God’s permissive will, we must be careful to notice not only the word permissive but also the word will. Whatever God “permits” He sovereignly and efficaciously wills to permit. If I have a choice to sin or not sin, God also has a choice in the matter. He always has the ability and the authority to stop me from exercising my will. He has absolute power to restrain me. He can vaporize me instantly if it is His pleasure. Or He can keep me on a long leash and let me do my worst. He will only permit me to do my worst if my worst coincides with His perfect providential plan.

In the treachery perpetrated by Joseph’s brothers, it was said, “You meant it for evil; God meant it for good.” God’s good will was served through the bad will of Joseph’s brothers. This does not mean that since they were only doing the will of God the acts of the brothers were virtues in disguise. Their acts are judged together with their intentions, and they were rightly judged by God to be evil. That God brings good out of evil only underscores the power and the excellence of His sovereign decretive will.

We sometimes get at this same problem by distinguishing between God’s active will and His passive will. Again we face difficulties. When God is “passive,” He is, in a sense, actively passive. I do not mean to speak nonsense but merely to show that God is never totally passive. When He seems to be passive, He is actively choosing not to intercede directly.

Augustine addressed the problem this way: “Man sometimes with a good will wishes something which God does not will, as when a good son wishes his father to live, while God wishes him to die. Again it may happen that man with a bad will wishes what God wills righteously, as when a bad son wishes his father to die, and God also wills it.… For the things which God rightly wills, He accomplishes by the evil wills of bad men.”

About the Author: Dr. R.C. Sproul is the founder and chairman of Ligonier Ministries, an international Christian education ministry located near Orlando, Florida. His teaching can be heard on the program Renewing Your Mind, which is broadcast on hundreds of radio outlets in the United States and in 40 countries worldwide. He is the executive editor of Tabletalk magazine and general editor of The Reformation Study Bible, and the author of more than seventy books (including some of my all time favorites: The Work of ChristThe Holiness of God; Chosen By God; Reason to Believe; Knowing Scripture; Willing to Believe; The Intimate Marriage; Pleasing God; If There’s A God, Why Are There Atheists?, and Defending The Faith) and scores of articles for national evangelical publications. Dr. Sproul also serves as president of Ligonier Academy of Biblical and Theological Studies and Reformation Bible College. He currently serves as Senior Minister of preaching and teaching at Saint Andrew’s in Sanford, FL. The article above was adapted from Ligonier Ministries Tabletalk magazine – August, 1993.

Book Review: Finding the Will of God?: A Pagan Notion? by Bruce K. Waltke

How To Seek His Kingdom and Do God’s Will

Right off the bat I have to say that one of the highlights of my academic career was taking a class from the author of this book on “Proverbs” about a decade ago. I was inspired to read everything Bruce Waltke writes, not only because he is one of the finest Hebrew Scholars and teachers of the Old Testament in the world, but also because he is a humble bible scholar who exudes the fruit of the Spirit as Paul describes it in Galatians 5:22-23. I will never forget his kindness shown to me as I picked his brain over theological and ministry issues I was wrestling with at the time, and how he patiently and wisely counseled me. I will forever be indebted to his wise advise, and believe that his counsel will continue to pay many dividends for others – as much of what he shared with me in that class on Proverbs are principles for the many who will read and apply in his very helpful book on decision making for followers of Jesus.

The Book is simply divided up into two parts. Part one is the shorter of the two parts and consists of chapters on: 1) Is Finding God’s Will a Biblical Idea? 2) How Pagans Divine the Will of God; and 3) God’s Will in the Old Testament. In summary Waltke does an excellent job of demonstrating that much of what passes for “finding” God’s will is sheer laziness and what the Bible condemns as the practice of divination. Waltke writes, “When we seek to ‘find’ God’s will, we are attempting to discover hidden knowledge by supernatural activity. If we are going to find his will on one specific choice, we will have to penetrate the divine mind to get his decision. ‘Finding’ in this sense is really a form of divination.”

Dr. Waltke gives a compelling case for Christians thinking in terms that are more Biblical – instead of trying to find God’s specific will – “Far too many Christians rely on faulty logic to divine the will of God. Their thinking goes like this: ‘God has a plan, and therefore He intends that I find it.’ That is a non sequitur, a conclusion that cannot logically follow the premise. Simply because God has a plan does not mean that He necessarily has any intention of sharing it with you; as a matter of fact the message of Job is in part that the Lord in His sovereignty may allow terrible things to happen to you, and you may never know why.”

Rather humorously (yet on a serious note related to how faith is manifested in a variety of ways for all believers) he continues, “Instructively, the outcomes of faith for the first three heroes of faith celebrated in Hebrews 11 vary considerably. Abel believed God, and he died; Enoch believed God, and he did not die; Noah believed God, and everybody else died! The only thing they all had in common is that they believed God and it pleased Him.”

Practically, Waltke states, “So when I wonder about what job offer to take, I don’t go through a divination process to discover the hidden message of God. Instead I examine how God has called me to live my life, what my motives are, what he has given me a heart for, where I am in my walk with Christ, and what God is saying to me through His Word and His people.”

He carefully evaluates many of the instances of Divine guidance recorded in the Old Testament and then shows what does, and does not carry over into the New Covenant. Which brings us to part two.

In part two Dr. Waltke breaks down how God guides us first through His Word, then through heartfelt desires, followed by the wise counsel of others, through our circumstances, and ultimately why we must rely on sound judgment based on all these previous factors.

Dr. Waltke says there are five primary factors to consider when seeking to be obedient and guided by the Holy Spirit in our decision making process:

1)    Make your decision in light of Scripture (our decision should be affirmed by and never contradict the teaching of the Bible – e.g. – Acts 15; Acts 13:46-47; Malachi 2:16 cf. with Matthew 5:32 & 1 Corinthians 7 with Galatians 2:14).

2)    Make your decision in light of your giftedness (In other words seek to operate in areas of your God-given strengths – e.g. – Acts 6:2-3; Rom. 12:3).

3)    Make your decision according to your ability (“Know who you are. Evaluate your abilities and talents. Don’t try to be what you’re not, because if you do you will live in a constant state of anxiety” – e.g. – Moses in Deuteronomy 34:10-12).

4)    Make your decision according to your circumstances (e.g. – Paul in Acts 16 & 1 Cor. 16:5-9 – he based his decisions on sound judgment in light of the circumstances he was in).

5)    Make your decision according to an Overall Strategy (e.g. – Paul in 2 Cor. 1:15-18, 23-24; 2:1).

The essence of Waltke’s thesis is summarized close to the end of the book where he writes, “He [God] never calls us in the New Testament to ‘seek His will,’ but rather to seek His kingdom and do His will. We ought to stamp out of our vocabulary the nonbiblical and misleading expression ‘finding God’s will.’ Rather than talk about ‘seeking the will of God,’ we ought to speak of following the guidance of God. This is not just semantically different, since He is calling us to draw close to Himself and to live holy lives. God’s will for us is that we be holy; there is no mystery to His will. As for questions about changing jobs, getting married, going to school, and the like, finding answers will require growing close to God [author’s emphasis in italics].”

Overall, I highly recommend this book for its theological and biblical foundations, it’s dismantling of the notion of divining God’s secretive will for us, it’s emphasis on closeness and intimacy with God as a key to His guidance, and for the excellent illustrations, practical applications, and how Dr. Waltke shares how God guides biblical characters and modern followers of Christ today throughout the book.


*Bruce K. Waltke (PhD, Dallas Theological Seminary; PhD, Harvard Divinity School), acknowledged to be one of the outstanding contemporary Old Testament scholars, is professor of Old Testament at Reformed Theological Seminary in Orlando, Florida, and professor emeritus of biblical studies at Regent College in Vancouver. He has authored and coauthored numerous books, commentaries, and articles, and contributed to dictionaries and encyclopedias.