Compiled by Dr. David P. Craig

Understanding Islam

John Ankerberg, John Weldon, and Dillon Burroughs. The Facts on Islam. Eugene, OR. Harvest House, 2008.

Ron Carlson and Ed Decker. Chapter 7 on “Islam” in Fast Facts On False Teachings. Eugene, OR. Harvest House, 1994.

Windried Corduan. Chapters 3 and 4 – “Islam: Basics and Issues” & “Islam: Understanding 9/11 and Radical Islam” in Neighboring Faiths: A Christian Introduction to World Religions. Downers Grove, IL., InterVarsity Press, 2013.

Charles Dyer and Mark Tobey. Clash of Kingdoms: What The Bible Says About Russia, ISIS, Iran, and the End Times. Nashville, TN., Thomas Nelson, 2017.

Craig Evans and Jeremiah J. Johnston. Jesus and the Jihadis: Confronting The Rage of ISIS: The Theology Driving The Ideology. Shippensburg, PA., 2015.

Dean C. Halverson. Chapter 7 on “Islam” in The Compact Guide to World Religions. Minneapolis, MN., 1996.

Erwin Lutzer. The Cross In The Shadow of The Crescent. Eugene, OR. Harvest House, 2013.

Gerald R. McDermott.  Chapter 7 “Islam” in World Religions. Nashville, TN. Thomas Nelson, 2011.

Marvin Olasky. Chapter on “Islam Attachment” in The Religions Next Door: What We Need To Know about Judaism, Hinduism, Buddhism, and Islam – and what reporters are missing. Nashville, TN., Broadman & Holman, 2004.

Nabeel Qureshi. Answering Jihad: A Better Way Forward. Grand Rapids, MI., Zondervan, 2016.

The Voice of the Martyrs. I Am N: Inspiring Stories of Christians Facing Islamic Extremists. 

Walk Thru The Bible. “Tenets of Islam” in World Religions From A Christian Perspective. WTTB, 2013.

James R. White. What Every Christian Needs To Know About The Quran. Bloomington, MN., Bethany, 2013.

Michael Youssef. The Hidden Enemy: Aggressive Secularism, Radical Isalm, and The Fight For Our Future. Wheaton, IL., Tyndale, 2018.

Comparing Christianity and Islam

Ronnie P. Campbell, Christopher Gnanakan, Wm. Andrew Schwartz, John B. Cobb Jr., Francis J. Beckwith, Gerald R. McDermott, Jerry L. Walls. Do Christians, Muslims, and Jews Worship The Same God? Four Views. Grand Rapids, MI., Zondervan, 2019.

Nabeel Qureshi. No God But One: Allah or Jesus? Grand Rapids, MI., Zondervan, 2016.

Fritz Ridnour. Chapter 5 on “Islam” in So What’s The Difference? A Look At 20 Worldviews, Faiths and Religions and How They Compare With Christianity. Grand Rapids, MI., Baker, 2001.

R. Gino Santa Maria. Chapters on “Islam”, “Comparing Sunni and Shi’a Islam”, and “Nation of Islam” in Christianity, Cults & Religions. Rose Publishing, n.d.

R.C. Sproul and Abdul Saleeb. The Dark Side of Islam. Wheaton, IL., Crossway, 2003.

Timothy C. Tennent. Chapters 6 & 7 on “Christianity and Islam” in Christianity at the Religious RoundTable: Evangelicalism in Conversation with Hinduism, Buddhism, and Islam. Grand Rapids, MI., Baker, 2013.

Sharing the Gospel With Muslims 

Thabiti Anyabwile. The Gospel For Muslims: An Encouragement to Share Christ with Confidence. Chicago, IL., 2010.

J.D. Greear. Breaking The Islam Code. Eugene, OR. Harvest House, 2010.

Ernest Hahn. How To Respond to Muslims. St. Louis, MO., CPH, 1995.

John Klaassen. Engaging With Muslims: Understanding their world; sharing good news. UK., The Good Book Company. 2015.

Carl Medearis. Muslims, Christians, and Jesus. Bloomington, MN., Bethany, 2008.

___________. Simple Ways To Reach Out To Muslims. Bloomington, MN., Bethany, 2012. (This book is a shorter selection Medearis’ book above)

Ron Rhodes. Reasoning From the Scriptures With Muslims. Eugene, OR. Harvest House, 2002.

__________. The Ten Things You Need To Know About Islam. Eugene, OR. Harvest House, 2007.

Shirin Taber. Muslims Next Door: Uncovering Myths and Creating Friendships. Grand Rapids, MI., Zondervan, 2004.

Testimonies of Those Who Have Converted From Islam to Christianity

Esther Ahmad with Craig Borlase. Defying Jihad: The Dramatic True Story of a Woman Who Volunteered to Kill Infidels—and Then Faced Death For Becoming One. Wheaton, IL., Tyndale, 2019.

Abu Atallah and Kent A. Van Til. From Cairo to Christ: How One Muslim’s Faith Journey Shows The Way For Others. Downers Grove, IL., InterVarsity Press, 2017.

Rifqa Bary. Hiding in the Light: Why I Risked Everything to Leave Islam and Follow Jesus. Colorado Springs, CO., 2015.

Tom Doyle with Greg Webster. Dreams and Visions: Is Jesus Awakening The Muslim World? Nashville, TN., Thomas Nelson, 2012.

Naeem Fazal with Kitti Murray. Ex-Muslim: How One Daring Prayer To Jesus Changed A Life Forever. Nashville, TN., Thomas Nelson, 2014.

David Garrison. A Wind In The House of Islam: How God is Drawing Muslims Around The World To Faith In Jesus Christ. Monument, CO., WiGTake Resources,  2014.

Reema Goode. Which None Can Shut: Remarkable True Stories of God’s  Miraculous Work in the Muslim World. Wheaton, IL., Tyndale, 2010.

Charles Morris & Craig Borlase. Fleeing ISIS, Finding Jesus: The Real Story of God At Work. Colorado Springs, CO., David C. Cook, 2017.

Annahita Parsan with Craig Borlase. Stranger No More: A Muslim Refugee’s Story of Harrowing Escape, Miraculous Rescue, and the Quiet Call of Jesus. Nashville, TN., Harper Collins, 2017.

Maryam Rostampour & Marziyeh Amirizadeh. Captive In Iran: A Remarkable True Story of Hope And Triumph Amid The Horror Of Tehran’s Brutal Evian Prison. Wheaton, IL., Tyndale, 2013.

Bilquis Sheikh with Richard H. Schneider. I Dared To Call Him Father: The Miraculous Story of Muslim Woman’s Encounter With God. Grand Rapids, MI., Chosen Books, 2011.

Jerry Trousdale. Miraculous Movements: How Hundreds of Thousands of Muslims Are Falling in Love With Jesus. Nashville, TN. Thomas Nelson, 2012.

Nabeel Qureshi. Seeking Allah, Finding Jesus. Grand Rapids, MI., Zondervan, 2018.

YouTube Videos On Islam and Christianity

Thabiti Anyabwile: “A Christian Response to Islam” (39:36); “Loving Our Muslim Neighbors” (53:26); “The Gospel For Muslims” (33:17).

William Lane Craig: “Did the Resurrection Really Happen? (1:21:02); “William Lane Craig vs Shabir Ally – Did Jesus Rise From The Dead?” (2:25:39); “Christianity & Islam: What Must I Do to Be Saved?” (1:50:17).

Gary Habermas: “The Resurrection Argument – The Historical Evidence for Jesus’ Resurrection That Even Skeptics Believe” (1:20:42); “Gary Habermas: The Resurrection” (1:14:31); “Gary Habermas Proves the Resurrection” (30:25).

Mike Licona: “Did Jesus Rise From The Dead? (48:58); “Shabir Ally vs. Mike Licona – 2004” (2:35:59); “Debate: Did Jesus Rise from the Dead? Licona vs. Shapiro 2018” (1:34:53). “Jesus Resurrected or Rescued?” – Licona vs. Ally (2:01:29).

Nabeel Qureshi: “Engaging Islam: The Gospel & Nabeel’s Testimony” (37:41); “Sharia, Hadith, and Islamic History – Apologetics” (48:10); “My Journey to Christ” (50:34); “Nabeel Qureshi on Islam and Christianity” (52:16); “Understanding the Violence in Islam” (1:01:48); “Jesus in Islam vs. Jesus in Christianity” (1:13:04); “Islam Through The Eyes of Muslims” (1:14:32); “Islamic Practices and Beliefs” (1:27:37); “Difficulties with the Historical Muhammad” (1:31:18); “The Text of the Qu’ran – Apologetics to Isalm (1:54:49); “Seeking Allah, Finding Jesus” (1:55:33); “What Is God Really Like: Tawhid or Trinity?” (2:55:44); “Answering Jihad: A Better Way Forward” (1:47:02); “Reaching Muslims Through Jesus – Q&A (23:41); “Why Believe Jesus Christ is God? #Apologetics” (18:48); “Nabeel Qureshi at Georgia Tech” (1:47:25); “Can A Scientist Believe in the Resurrection?” (2:01:37); “Nabeel Qureshi’s Memorial Service” (1:12:17 – Featuring Dr. James Tour and Ravi Zacharias)

James White: “James White on Islam” (1:31:17); “The Resurrection of Jesus Christ – Luke 24” (51:53); “The Forgotten Trinity” (1:02:38); “Is The Quran a Reliable Record of the Teachings of Muhammad? (1:33:16); “Muhammad’s Errors About Jesus” (1:36:51);  “The Jesus Debate – Adnan Rashid vs. James White” (1:31:16); “An Islam Christian Debate: Was the Quran# Reliably Transmitted from the Prophet? Part 1” (1:26:13); “An Islam Christian Debate: Was the Quran# Reliably Transmitted from the Prophet? Part 2” (1:26:13); “Christian Muslim Dialogue Pt. 1 Dr. James White & Dr. Yasir Qadhi (1:56:24); “10/7/2013 Sin and Salvation – White vs. Ally” (2:31:04); “Debate: Was Jesus Crucified? James White & Zakir Hussain” (2:22:03); “10/4/2013 The Trinity & Tawid Debate – White vs. Bux (1:43:52); “Do We Need The Cross For Salvation? A Debate with Adnin Rashid & Dr. James White” (2:29:20); “Is Jesus Christ God? James White vs. Jalal Abualrub” (1:34:42); “Is Jesus Christ God? James White vs. Jalal Abualrub – Part 2” (45:48); “Has the Qur’an Eternally Existed – Dr. James White vs. Yusuf Ismail (2:19:42); “Is God One or Three Divine Persons? Shabir Ally debates James White” (2:38:22).

“Seeking Allah, Finding Jesus” by Nabeel Qureshi


Riveting Testimony of God’s Redeeming Grace

Book Review by Dr. David P. Craig

I had no idea what kind of a treat I was in for in reading this book. I don’t think I’ve ever read such a riveting auto biography. Nabeel Quereshi tells his story of what it is like to grow up in Scotland and America as a a second generation immigrant from Pakistan. It took me two days to read the book because it is close to 400 pages and I’m a slow reader, but I had a hard time putting it down. Nabeel is a phenomenal story teller and has a witty and fantastic intellect.

This book has it all: drama, humor, depth, pathos, wisdom, and fantastic spiritual truths.  Nabeel has a way of bringing you into the story so that you feel like you are in each scene. I laughed, cried, and laughed and cried some more.

This book helped me immensely in the following ways: (1) It gave me tremendous insight into what it’s like to be a second generation Muslim living in America; (2) It helped me to better understand the beliefs, culture, sociology, and religious practices of Islam; (3) It gave me a greater compassion for people of the Muslim faith; (4) It motivated me to befriend, understand, and help Muslims; (5) It motivated me to know what I believe and why I believe it (as a Christian) more than I do; (6) It gave me an excitement to go deeper in my study of Islam and Christianity and how they are similar and different; (7) It made me want to delve deeper into being able to give numerous reasons for and evidences of the infallibility and inerrancy of the Scriptures, the death, burial, and resurrection of Jesus, and evidences for the Deity of Jesus and why this matters immensely for everyone.

I think any Christian, Muslim, or a person of any belief can benefit from reading this book. It will stir in you a desire to know what you believe, why you believe it, and motivate you to seek the truth. Nabeel has a story that will motivate you, liberate you, excite you, and can radically change your life! I can’t recommend this book highly enough – absolutely outstanding. It’s a book I will read again and again for encouragement, motivation, and transformation.


Book Review on Costi W. Hinn’s “God, Greed, And The (Prosperity) Gospel by David P. Craig


The Truth About The False Gospel

One of the first papers I wrote in Bible college in 1985 was a critique on the so-called “Prosperity Gospel.” At the time, the big name prosperity preacher in America was Robert Schuller. As I compared his teaching with the Bible it was very clear that what’s been come to be known as the “prosperity gospel” is clearly a false or non-gospel. It’s not good news because it’s not the biblical gospel – it’s a mirage that is synonymous with the so-called “American Dream.”

As I did my research for my paper on Schuller, something really caught my attention. One, I realized that nobody in the Bible lived with total health, wealth, and prosperity. Pick just about anyone from the Old Testament or New Testament. What they all had in common wasn’t health, wealth, and prosperity, but suffering, pain, and ultimately death – many of them martyrs deaths for the sake of the real gospel. Compare the American dream with the life of Joseph, Job, Paul, Peter, and Jesus – and you have a clear bifurcation of the real and unreal gospel.

Another thing that stood out to me was how Schuller’s “Hour of Power” (his TV show watched by millions of people around the world) couldn’t get traction in communist Russia. I talked with a Russian evangelical pastor and he told me that Schuller couldn’t get traction in Russia because what he was teaching didn’t work in Russia. He wasn’t preaching the gospel because the gospel works everywhere: among the poor and rich, free and suppressed; educated and uneducated; every language; every ethnic group, etc. The gospel has never changed. The reality of the gospel is it works everywhere because it’s true and has the power of God behind it (Romans 1:16). If it can’t be preached everywhere and to everyone than its simply NOT the biblical gospel!

Unfortunately, the false gospel known as the “Prosperity-Gospel” continues to be propounded world-wide. Among the most famous proponents of this false gospel has been Benny Hinn – the uncle of the author, Costi W. Hinn. First of all, kudos to Costi for his courage in writing this book. Costi understands that people’s eternal lives and earthly lives are at stake as to how we understand and what we believe about the gospel. It’s essential that we get the gospel right.

Who should read this book? Everyone! I have been an evangelical pastor for over 30 years and it never ceases to amaze me how many church going people don’t read their Bibles, don’t understand the gospel, and are prone to believe in deceptive lies of the enemy that are proclaimed by wolves in sheep’s clothing.

Costi does a wonderful job of bringing the reader into the world view of prosperity gospel ministries. He gives an honest assessment of its strengths and weaknesses and testifies to how he was deceived growing up in this movement. He then goes on to compare prosperity theology with biblical theology. He compares false teaching and doctrine with biblical doctrine and teaching.

He has some very helpful sections in the book that help you biblically detect false teachers and false doctrines; shows how the prosperity gospel contradicts the real gospel; and gives a balanced view of healing, health, and wealth that is truly biblically based. He also has a great section on helps to reach those who are lost and caught up in false religions and cults.

By God’s grace Costi has been spared from a life apart from truth and the genuine gospel. Now he proclaims God’s grace and the genuine gospel as a pastor and writer. May our Lord use this book to help many flee from the darkness and run to the light of the gospel: That Jesus died for our sins according to the Scriptures, that He was buried, and rose again according to the Scriptures, and that those who repent of their sins and trust in Him may have eternal life. May all those who are deceived have the blinders taken off and may God use this great book to help us in reaching those who were once like Costi – who was once dead spiritually and is now alive spiritually because of the mercy of God delineated by the apostle Paul in 1 Corinthians 15:1-6 & Ephesians 2:1-10.




Recommended Resources on Science and the Bible (Compiled by Pastor David P. Craig)

images.jpegThe Relationship Between the Bible and Science

Barret, Eric C., and David Fisher. Scientists Who Believe.

Berlinski, David. The Devil’s Delusion: Atheism and its Scientific Pretensions.

Cabal, Theodore and Peter Rasor II. Controversy of the Ages: Why Christians Should Not Divide Over The Age Of The Earth.

Carlson, Richard F., editor. Science & Christianity: Four Views.

Collins, C. John. Science & Faith: Friends Or Foes?

Flew, Anthony with Roy Abraham Varghese. There is a God: How The World’s Most Notorious Atheist Changed His Mind.

Guillen, Michael. Amazing Truths: How Science And The Bible Agree

Guillen, Michael. Can A Smart Person Believe in God?

Helm, David R. and Jon M. Dennis. The Genesis Factor: Probing Life’s Big Questions.

Hunter, Cornelius G. Science’s Blind Spot: The Unseen Religion of Scientific Naturalism.

Kethley, Kenneth D., and Mark F. Rooker. 40 Questions About Creation and Evolution.

Lennox, John. Can Science Explain Everything?

Lennox, John. God’s Undertaker: Has Science Buried God?

Lennox, John. Seven Days That Divide The World: The Beginning According To Genesis and Science. 

Moreland, J.P. Christianity and the Nature of Science.

Moreland, J.P. Scientism and Secularism: Learning to Respond to a Dangerous Ideology.

Morris, Henry. Men of Science, Men of God.

Plantinga, Alvin. Where The Conflict Really Lies: Science, Religion, & Naturalism.

Ratzsch, Del. Science and Its Limits.

Ratzsch, Del. The Battle of Beginnings: Why Neither Side Is Winning the Creation- Evolution Debate.

Rau, Gerald. Mapping The Origins Debate: Six Models of The Beginning of Everything.

Stokes, Mitch. How To Be An Atheist: Why Skeptics Aren’t Skeptical Enough.

Strobel, Lee. The Case for a Creator: A Journalist Investigates Scientific Evidence That Points Toward God.

Wallace, J. Warner. God’s Crime Scene: A Cold-Case Detective Examines The Evidence For A Divinely Created Universe.

Williams, Richard N. and Daniel N. Robinson, eds. Scientism: The New Orthodoxy.

Intelligent Design

Axe, Douglas. Undeniable: How Biology Confirms Our Intuition That Life Is Designed.

Behe, Michael J. Darwin’s Black Box: The Biochemical Challenge to Evolution. 

Behe, Michael J. The Edge of Evolution: The Search for the Limits of Darwinism.

Behe, Michael J. Darwin Devolves: The New Science About DNA That Challenges Evolution.

Behe, Michael, William A. Dembski, and Stephen C. Meyer. Science And Evidence For Design In The Universe.

Dembski, William. Intelligent Design: The Bridge Between Science and Theology.

Dembski, William. The Design Inference: Eliminating Chance Through Small Probabilities.

Dembski, William. The Design Revolution: Answering the Toughest Questions About Intelligent Design.

Dembski, William and Jonathan Witt. The Intelligent Design Uncensored: An Easy-to- Understand Guide to the Controversy.

Denton, Michael. Children of Light: The Astonishing Properties of Sunlight that Make Us Possible.

Denton, Michael J. Destiny: How The Laws Of Biology Reveal Purpose In The Universe.

Denton, Michael. Fire-Maker: How Humans Were Designed to Harness Fire and Transform Our Planet.

Denton, Michael. The Wonder of Water.

Eberlin, Marcos. Fore Sight: How the Chemistry of Life Reveals Planning and Purpose.

Gonzalez, Guillermo, and Jay W. Richards. The Privileged Planet: How Are Place In The Cosmos Is designed For Discovery.

Johnson, Phillip E. Darwin on Trial.

Johnson, Phillip E. The Wedge of Truth: Splitting The Foundations of Naturalism.

Keas, Michael Newton. Unbelievable: 7 Myths About the History and Future of Science and Religion.

Leila, Matti & Jonathan Witt. Heretic: One Scientist’s Journey From Darwin To Design.

Meyer, Stephen C. Signature in the Cell: DNA and the Evidence for Intelligent Design.

Meyer, Stephen C. Darwin’s Doubt: The Explosive Origin Of Animal Life And The Case For Intelligent Design.

Meyer, Stephen C. “Intelligent Design” in Four Views On Creation, Evolution, and Intelligent Design edited by J.B. Stump.

Travis, Melissa Cain. Science and The Mind of the Maker: What the Conversation Between Faith and Science Reveals About God.

Wells, Jonathan. Icons of Evolution: Science or Myth? Why Much of What We teach About Evolution Is Wrong.

Wells, Jonathan. The Myth of Junk DNA.

Wells, Jonathan. Zombie Science: More Icons of Evolution.

West, John G. editor. The Magician’s Twin: C.S. Lewis on Science, Scientism, and Society.

Websites Promoting Intelligent Design: ; ; ; ; ; 

Six-Day Creationism (Young Earth)

Ashton, John F., editor. In Six Days: Why Fifty Scientists Choose to Believe in Creation.

Barrick, William D. by William D. “Young Earth View of Adam” in Four Views on the Historical Adam.

Duncan III, J. Ligon and David W. Hall “The 24-Hour View” in The Genesis Debate: Three Views on the Days of Creation.

Ham, Ken. “Young Earth Position” in Four Views on Creation, Evolution, and Intelligent Design.

 Hoffmeier, James K. “Genesis as History”in Genesis: History, Fiction, or Neither? Three Views on the Bible’s Earliest Chapters

MacArthur, John. The Battle of Beginnings: Creation, Evolution, and The Bible.

Morris, Henry and John Whitcomb. The Genesis Flood.

Morris, Henry M. Scientific Creationism.

Morris, John D. The Global Flood: Unlocking Earth’s Geologic History.

Morris, John D. The Young Earth: The Real History of the the Earth – Past, Present, and Future.

Morris, John D and Frank J. Sherwin. The Fossil Record: Unearthing Nature’s History of Life.

Mortenson Terry and Thane H. Ury. Coming to Grips With Genesis.

Nelson, Paul and Mark Reynolds. “Young Earth Creationism” in Three Views on Creation and Evolution.

Vail, Tom. Grand Canyon: A Different View.

Young Earth/ Six-Day Creationism Websites: – Ken Ham’s Ministry: ; Institute for Creation Research (Founded by Henry M. Morris) – ; Creation Ministries

The Day Age Theory or Progressive Creationism (Old Earth)

Gribbin, John. Alone in the Universe: Why Our Planet Is Unique.

Hill, Carol, Gregg Davidson, Tim Helble, and Wayne Ranney, editors. The Grand Canyon, Monument to an Ancient Earth: Can Noah’s Flood Explain the Grand Canyon?

Rana, Fazale. Creating Life In The Lab.

Rana, Fazale. The Cell’s Design.

Rana, Fazale & Hugh Ross. Origins of Life: Biblical and Evolutionary Models Face Off.

Rana, Fazale & Hugh Ross. Who Was Adam? A Creation Model Approach To The Origin of Humanity.

Rana, Fazale R. & Kenneth R. Samples. Humans 2.0: Scientific, Philosophical and Theological Perspectives on Transhumanism.

Ross, Hugh. A Matter of Days.

Ross, Hugh. Beyond The Cosmos.

Ross, Hugh. Creator and The Cosmos.

Ross, Hugh. Improbable Planet.

Ross, Hugh. More Than A Theory.

Ross, Hugh. Navigating Genesis.

Ross, Hugh. The Fingerprint of God.

Ross, Hugh. Why The Universes Is The Way It Is.

Snoke, David. A Biblical Case for an Old Earth.

Young, Davis A. and Ralph F. Stearley. The Bible, Rocks and Time: Geological Evidence for the Age of the Earth.

Websites Promoting The Day Age Theory: ; 

The Gap Theory

Barnhouse, Donald Grey. Genesis.

Chalmers, Thomas. The Works of Thomas Chalmers: Complete In One Volume.

Custance, Arthur C.. Without Form and Void.

DeHaan, M.R. Genesis.

Pember, G.H. Earth’s Earliest Ages.

Pink, A.W. Gleanings in Genesis.

Rimmer, Harry. Modern Science and the Genesis Record.

Schaeffer, Francis. Genesis in Space and Time.

Scofield C.I. Scofield Reference Bible (Notes).

Evolutionary Creationism or Theistic Evolution

A Defense of Theistic Evolution:

Applegate, Kathryn & J.B. Stump. How I Changed My Mind About Evolution: Evangelicals Reflect on Faith and Science.

Bishop, Robert C. and Larry L. Funck. Understanding Scientific Theories of Origins: Cosmology, Geology, and Biology in Christian (BioLogos Books on Science and Christianity).

Collins, Francis S. The Language of God: A Scientist Presents Evidence for Belief.

Keathley, Kenneth, J.B. Stump, and Joe Aguirre. Old-Earth Or Evolutionary Creation? Discussing Origins with Reasons To Believe and Biologos.

Haarsma, Deborah B. “Evolutionary Creationism”  in Four Views On Creation, Evolution, and Intelligent Design.

Haarsma, Deborah B. and Loren D. Haarsma. Origins: Christian Perspectives on Creation, Evolution, and Intelligent Design

Lamoureux, Denis O. I Love Jesus & I Accept Evolution 

Lamoureux, Denis O. Evolutionary Creation: A Christian Approach to Evolution

Lamoureux, Denis O. “No Historical Adam: Evolutionary Creation View” in Four Views On The Historical Adam.

McGrath, Alister. The Science of God.

Van Till, Howard J. “The Fully Gifted Creation” in Three Views on Creation and Evolution.

Wood, Todd Charles, and Darrel R. Falk. The Fool And The Heretic: How Two Scientists Moved Beyond Labels To A Christian Dialogue About Creation and Evolution.

Websites Promoting Theistic Evolution: ; ; ;

Evolution Critiqued

Berlinski, David. The Deniable Darwin.

Bethell, Tom. Darwin’s House Of Cards: A Journalists Odyssey Through The Darwin Debates.

Carlson, Ron and Ed Decker. “Evolution The Incredible Theory” in Fast Facts on False Teaching.

Denton, Michael. Evolution: A Theory In Crises.

Denton, Michael. Evolution: Still A Theory In Crises.

Gale,  Barry G. Evolution Without Evidence: Charles Darwin and The Origin of the Species.

Gillespie, Neil. Charles Darwin and The Problems of Creation.

Hanegraaf, Hank. The FARCE of Evolution.

Johnson, Phillip E. Darwin on Trial.

Johnson, Phillip E. Defeating Darwinism by Opening Minds.

Moreland, J.P., Stephen C. Meyer, Christopher Shaw, Ann K. Gauger, and Wayne Grudem, eds. Theistic Evolution: A Scientific, Philosophical, and Theological Critique.

Nagel, Thomas. Mind And Cosmos: Why The Materialist Noe-Darwinian Conception of Nature Is Almost Certainly False

Rhodes, Ron. The 10 Things You Should Know About the Creation vs. Evolution Debate.

Richards, Jay, editor. God And Evolution. 

Simmons, M.D. Geoffrey. What Darwin Didn’t Know: A Doctor Dissects the Theory of Evolution.

Woodward, Thomas. Doubts About Darwin.

YouTube Videos On Science, the Bible, and Evolution

“Nothing Left to Chance” (48:15) {R.C. Sproul, Ligonier Ministries}.

“An Interview with Michael J. Denton” (32:47).

“Blind Watchmaker? A Skeptical Look at Darwinism” (1:12:55) {Phillip E. Johnson}.

“God, Science & the Big Questions: Leading Christian Thinkers Respond to the New Atheism” (1:45:15) {Held at Biola University – with William Lane Craig, John Lennox, J.P. Moreland, and Hugh Hewitt}.

“Hugh Ross and Walter Kaiser vs. Ken Ham and Jason Lisle – Genesis Debate” (3:45:06).

“Hugh Ross and John Ankerberg – Genesis and Science” (2:49:36).

“God and Evolution: The Problem with Theistic Evolution” – Stephen C. Meyer (1:02:36).

“The Origin of Life: Evolution vs. Design” [Full Debate between evolutionist, Michael Ruse and Reason to Believe’s – Fazale Rana, (2:28:35)].

“God & Evolution: A Critique of Theistic Evolution” (2:23:44) [with Stephen Meyer].

“Mathematical Challenges to Darwin’s Theory of Evolution with Berlinski, Meyer, and Gelerenter” (57:14).

“For the City: J.P. Moreland on “A Christian View of Science” (1:08:36).

“Hugh Ross talks Four Views on Creation, Evolution, and Intelligent Design” (Part 1, 33:21).

“Creation – Evolution Debates – Dawkins vs. Lennox at Cambridge” (1:21:53).

“Intelligent Design Vs. Evolution 2.0 – Perry Marshall debates Stephen Meyer” (1:21:53).

“John Lennox: The Question of Science and God – Part 1 (47:34) {Socrates in the City Interview with Eric Metaxas}; Part 2 (58:28).

“John Lennox: Seven Days That Divide the World” (1:30:07) {Socrates in the City Lecture Introduction and MC’d by Eric Metaxas}.

“Eric Metaxas Interviews Stephen Meyer on Science and Faith” (1:11:42).

“Can Science Explain Everything? An Interview with John Lennox (1:30:09).

“Eric Metaxas: The Miracle of the Universe” (45:06).

“Dr. David Berlinski: The Devil’s Delusion: Atheism and Its Scientific Pretensions” (1:14:57) {Socrates in the City – Introduction by Eric Mataxas}.

“Michael Behe – Lee Strobel – Molecular Machines Disprove Evolution” (8:41).

“Michael Behe: Darwin Devolves” (1:01:24) {Socrates in the City Interview with Eric Metaxas}.

“Irreducible Complexity” (1:42:48) {Michael Behe on the Access Research Network}.

“From the Big Bang to Irreducible Complexity – Michael Behe, PhD” (58:18).

“What Are The Limits of Drwinism? A Presentation by Dr. Micahel Behe at the University of Toronto” (1:25:34).

“Stephen Meyer & Eric Metaxas Discuss Darwin’s Doubt at Socrates in the City” ((1:25:48) {Socrates in the City Interview with Eric Metaxas}.

“Stephen Meyer: The Return of the God Hypothesis” (1:11:55) {Socrates in the City Interview with Eric Metaxas}.

“Ard Louis: Science and Faith” (1:18:45) {Socrates in the City Interview with Eric Metaxas}.

“Has Science Buried God? Oxford Professor, John Lennox, at SMU (1:11:25).

“James Tour: The Mystery of the Origin of Life” (58:02).

“Does Science Make Faith Obsolete? James Tour at Mississippi State University” (1:57:11).

“Dr. Tour On The Origin of Life at Syracuse University Cru” (1:30:29).

“Science Refutes Evolution – Dr. James Tour” (59:29).

“Dr. James Tour speaking about Evolution” (34:05).

“James Tour: The Origin of Life Has Not Been Explained” (22:57).

“The Scientific Case For Intelligent Design – William Dembski, PhD” (45:34).

“Information and the End of Materialism – William Dembski, PhD” (44:09).

“Molecular Machines and the Death of Darwinism – Dembski, Wells, Nelson, Macosko” (43:15).

“Detecting Design in Biology” (1:51:31) {Access Research Network}.

“Hugh Ross – Origin of Life” (1:13:01).

“Hugh Ross – Beyond the Cosmos: How Science Reveals God’s Trans-Dimensional Power” (1:13:11).

“Hugh Ross vs. Ken Ham – TBN Debate” (1:14:18).

“Hugh Ross vs. Kent Hovind How Old Is The Earth” (2:35:43).

“Does Science Prove God’s Glory? Dr. Hugh Ross Regent University (29:27).

“Hugh Ross – The Flood of Noah” (1:09:14).

“Hugh Ross – Hubble Confirms Universe Expanding Faster Than Expected” (1:47:11).

“Inner Life of the Cell (Full Version)” (7:59).

“The Failure of Darwin’s Theory” (28:31) {Stephen Meyer on John Ankerberg}.

“Harmony Between Christianity and Science Michael Guillen” (8:02).

“Francis Collins: How I Became a Christian” (27:53).

“10 Top Christian Scientists on Science and Faith” (6:28).

“Stephen C. Meyer The Ben Shapiro Show Sunday Special Episode 43” (59:38).

“How Darwinists Think Lecture and Q&A Phillip E. Johnson” (1:39:51).

“Phillip E. Johnson on Darwinism” (57:58).

“Darwinism on Trial” (1:40:59) {Phillip E. Johnson}.

“Focus on Darwinism – An Interview with Phillip E. Johnson” (54:08).

“One Nation Under Darwin” (1:32:09) {Phillip E. Johnson}.

“Debate: Darwinism: Science or Naturalistic Philosophy? Phillip Johnson vs William Provine” (1:46:33).

“Darwinism: Science or Philosophy – Phillip E. Johnson” (58:06).

Ten Key Ideas from C.S. Lewis’s Works


(Adapted from C.S. Lewis: A Very Short Introduction by James Como, Box 2)

These are central to Lewis’s  thinking: many of his arguments are based upon them and they were central to his life. Omitted are orthodox Christian ideas (e.g., the incarnation), as well as political ones (e.g., the danger of fetishizing equality: ‘I’m as good as you’):

  1. Joy (Sehnsucht): is a longing conveyed by some image or memory or event that does not originate in any of those but comes through them. It is from a place beyond the senses and kindles a hope that there is Heaven, that Heaven is our home, and that we will return there. It is painful because nothing in the world can satisfy it, no matter how hard we may try to do so; it is sweetly painful because we can intuit its origin and our destiny.
  2. Contemplation and Enjoyment (or At/Along), or knowing from the outside and from the inside, where a phenomenon (such as religious belief or being in love) may seem very different. We need both.
  3. Chronological snobbery: is the uncritical acceptance of our own intellectual climate, as though past beliefs or practices are useless simply because they came before us. A corollary is that our belief in progress is misplaced: we must ask what it is we are ‘progressing’ towards.
  4. Subjectivism is poisonous: because it leads to an exaltation of the Self, a form of idolatry, especially when applied to morality, as when something is deemed good because it feels good.
  5. Reason is objectively valid: and, though one’s logic may be flawed in any given case, is a sign of our non-material nature: atoms moving randomly in our brains is not thought. It is the ‘organ of truth’.
  6. Morality is objective: outside of any personal preference or perception and accessible to Reason. To be subjective respecting this Natural Law (the Tao) is to submit to those who have the power, especially the technological power, to enforce their preferences, leading to ‘the abolition of man’. It merits obedience.
  7. Imagination: especially when realized as metaphor, symbol, and myth, is the ‘organ of meaning’, antecedent to truth. It helps extend language without distorting or destroying it (‘verbicide’).
  8. Quiddity: is the ‘thingness’ of a thing, be it food, weather, or a person. We must pay attention to things as they are, name them appropriately, and respond ordinately to them.
  9. Personhood: is not at all the same as ‘personality’, the expression of which ought not to be one’s goal; rather we should apply the Law of Inattention, allowing us to pay attention to all sorts of signs outside of the Self, especially to other people. What am I feeling? matters less than What is that? After all, ‘feelings come and go, mostly they go’.
  10. Ultimate Reality: is not the plane of existence we occupy, which is but a ‘shadowland’, a sort of training camp for the realist thing. That solid place sends signs (e.g., Joy) and, because it is so much richer than our shadowland, must clothe those signs in words and objects that already have ordinary meaning to us (like erotic imagery symbolizing religious devotion). That is how sacramentalism works: a higher reality is transposed into a more limited key having ‘notes’ we recognize as ordinary.

About The Author: James T. Como holds a Ph.D. in Language, Literature, and Rhetoric from Columbia University and is now Professor Emeritus of Rhetoric and Public Communication at York College (CUNY). A founding member of the New York C. S. Lewis Society (1969), Dr. Como’s books include Branches to Heaven: The Geniuses of C. S. Lewis, a study of Lewis as a rhetorician, and Remembering C. S. Lewis. These, along with his many articles on Lewis in journals including The Wilson Quarterly and The New Criterion, and on-air commentary for five biographical documentaries, have established Dr. Como as one of the most highly-regarded Lewis scholars in the world. The Ten Key Ideas above are from his outstanding Introduction to C.S. Lewis in the series of books “A Very Short Introduction” published by Oxford University Press.



(1) The Argument from Motion There is motion (locomotion) in the universe. Something cannot move itself; an external agent or force is required. An infinite regress of forces is meaningless. Hence, there must be a being who is the ultimate source of all motion while not being moved itself. This being is God, the unmoved mover (*a posteriori) ~ Thomas Aquinas
(2) The Cosmological Argument Every effect has a cause. There must be an infinite regress of finite causes. Therefore, there must be an uncaused cause or necessary being. This being is God. (*a posteriori) ~ Thomas Aquinas
(3)The Argument from Possibility and Necessity Things exist in a network of relationships to other things. They can exist only within this network. Therefore, each is a dependent thing. However, an infinite regress of dependencies is contradictory. There must, then, be a being who is absolutely independent, not contingent on anything else. This being is God. (*a posteriori) ~ Thomas Aquinas
(4) The Argument from Perfection It can be observed from the universe that there is a pyramid of beings (e.g., from insects to humans), in an ever-increasing degree of perfection. There must be a final being who is absolutely perfect, the source of all perfection. This being is God. (*a posteriori) ~ Thomas Aquinas
(5) The Teleological Argument – Also Called The Argument from Design There is an observable order or design in the world that cannot be attributed to the object itself (e.g., inanimate objects). This observable order argues for an intelligent being who established this order. This being is God. (*a posteriori) ~ Thomas Aquinas
(6) The Moral or Anthropological Argument All people possess a moral impulse or categorical imperative. Since this morality is not always rewarded in this life, there must be some basis or reason for moral behavior that is beyond this life. This implies the existence of immortality, ultimate judgment, and a God who establishes and supports morality by rewarding good and punishing evil (*a posteriori) ~ Immanuel Kant, C.S. Lewis
(7) The Argument That God Is An Innate Idea All normal human beings are born with the idea of God implanted in the mind , though it is suppressed in unrighteousness (Romans 1:18). As the child grows into adulthood, this idea becomes clearer. Critical experience in the course of life may make this idea come alive.  (**a priori) ~ Augustine, John Calvin, Charles Hodge
(8) The Argument from Mysticism Mankind is able to have a direct mystical experience with God resulting in an ecstatic experience. This union with God is so uniquely overpowering that it self-validates the existence of God. (**a priori) ~ Evelyn Underhill
(9) The Argument from Truth All people believe that something is true. If God is the God of truth and the true God, then God is Truth. This Truth (capital T) is the context for all other truth. Therefore, the existence of truth implies the existence of Truth, which implies the existence of God. (**a priori) 
(10) The Ontological Argument Major premise: Mankind has an idea of an infinite and perfect being. Minor premise: Existence is a necessary part of perfection.

Conclusion: An infinite and perfect being exists, since the very concept of perfection requires existence.  (**a priori) ~ Anselm of Canterbury

(11) The Argument From Finitude Humans are aware of their finitude. What makes them aware of this? God is continually impressing humans with God’s infinitude. Therefore the sense of finitude itself is proof that an infinite being, God, exists. (**a priori) ~ Aristotle
(12) The Argument  From Blessed-ness Humans are restless, with a vague longing for blessedness until they rest in God. This longing was given by God. The presence of this longing is an indirect proof of God’s existence. (**a priori) ~ Augustine, Thomas Aquinas
(13) The Argument From Perception Human beings are able to perceive (sense) things. This cannot be caused either by physical events (perception as a mental act) or by human beings themselves. Therefore, the existence of perception implies Gods existence as the only rational explanation for human perceptions. (**a priori) ~ Bishop George Berkeley
(14) The Existential Argument  God proves Himself via the kerygma, which is His declaration of love, forgiveness, and justification of mankind. Those who decide for the kerygma then know God exists. No other evidence is needed. God is not so much proven as He is known, and this occurs existentially, from experiences in life. (**a priori) ~ Auguste Sabatier

*a posteriori = knowledge, thought, statements or arguments that logically follow from, arises after, or are dependent on, sense experience.

**a priori = knowledge, thought, statements or arguments that are logically prior to, or arising from a concept or principle that precedes empirical verification, or that occurs independently of experience.

*C.S. Lewis and 8 Reasons for Believing in Objective Morality


The cornerstone of the moral argument is the existence of an objective moral standard. If there really is a standard of right and wrong that holds true regardless of our opinions and emotions, then the moral argument has the ability to convince. However, apart from the existence of such an objective standard, moral arguments for God’s existence (and Christian theism) quickly lose their persuasive power and morality as a whole falls to the realm of subjective preference. Although I could say a fair amount about what the world would be like if morality really was a matter of preference (consider The Purge), the purpose of this article is to provide reasons for believing in objective morality (or “moral realism,” as philosophers call it).

Because of his continued focus on the objective nature of morality throughout his writings, and due to his unique ability to communicate and defend this concept in a clear and compelling manner, I will rely heavily on the thought of C. S. Lewis below. As I’ve read through a number of Lewis’s books, I’ve identified eight arguments he raises in favor of objective morality. Below is my attempt to list these eight arguments and offer a few thoughts of my own concerning each.

1)    Quarreling between two or more individuals. [1] When quarreling occurs, individuals assume there is an objective standard of right and wrong, of which each person is aware and one has broken. Why quarrel if no objective standard exists? 

By definition, quarreling (or arguing) involves trying to show another person that he is in the wrong. And as Lewis indicates, there is no point in trying to do that unless there is some sort of agreement as to what right and wrong actually are, just like there is no sense in saying a football player has committed a foul if there is no agreement about the rules of football. [2]

2)    It’s obvious that an objective moral standard exists. [3] Throughout history, mankind has generally agreed that “the human idea of decent behavior [is] obvious to everyone.” [4] For example, it’s obvious (or self-evident) that torturing a child for fun is morally reprehensible. 

As the father of two children, a daughter who is five and a son who is three, I have noticed that even my young children recognize that certain things are obviously right or wrong. For example, while watching a show like PJ Masks, my children can easily point out the good characters as well as the bad ones – even without my help. In short, the overwhelming obviousness that certain acts are clearly right or wrong indicates that an objective moral standard exists.

3)    Mistreatment. [5] One might say he does not believe in objective morality, however, the moment he is mistreated he will react as if such a standard exists. When one denies the existence of an objective standard of behavior, the moment he is mistreated, “he will be complaining ‘It’s not fair!’ before you can say Jack Robinson.” [6] 

Sean McDowell relays an example of this when he shares a story involving J. P. Moreland taking the stereo of a University of Vermont student who denied the existence of objective morality in favor of moral relativism. As Moreland was sharing the gospel with the university student, the student responded by saying he (Moreland) couldn’t force his views on others because “everything is relative.” Following this claim, in an effort to reveal what the student really believed about moral issues, Moreland picked up the student’s stereo from his dorm room and began to walk down the hallway, when the student suddenly shouted, “Hey, what are you doing? You can’t do that!” [7] 

Again, one might deny the existence of an objective standard of behavior through his words or actions, but he will always reveal what he really believes through his reactions when mistreated. (Note: Here at, we do not recommend you go around and mistreat others, as that wouldn’t be a moral way to do apologetics. See what I did there? Rather, we are simply bringing up the mistreatment issue as a way of exposing a deep flaw within moral relativism.)

4)    Measuring value systems. [8] When an individual states that one value system is better than another, or attempts to replace a particular value system with a better one, he assumes there is an objective standard of judgment. This objective standard of judgment, which is different from either value system, helps one conclude that one value system conforms more closely to the moral standard than another. Without some sort of objective measuring stick for value systems, there is no way to conclude that civilized morality, where humans treat one another with dignity and respect, is better than savage morality, where humans brutally murder others, even within their own tribe at times, for various reasons. 

To illustrate this point, Lewis says, “The reason why your idea of New York can be truer or less true than mine is that New York is a real place, existing quite apart from what either of us thinks. If when each of us said ‘New York’ each means merely ‘The town I am imagining in my own head,’ how could one of us have truer ideas than the other? There would be no question of truth or falsehood at all.” [9] In the same way, if there is no objective moral standard, then there is no sense in saying that any one value system has ever been morally good or morally bad, or morally superior or inferior to other value systems. 

5)    Attempting to improve morally. [10] Certainly, countless individuals attempt to improve themselves morally on a daily basis. No sane person wakes up and declares, “My goal is to become more immoral today!” [11] If there is no absolute standard of good which exists, then talk of moral improvement is nonsensical and actual moral progress is impossible. If no ultimate standard of right and wrong exists, then one might change his actions, but he can never improve his morality.

If there is hope of moral improvement, then there must be some sort of absolute standard of good that exists above and outside the process of improvement. In other words, there must be a target for humans to aim their moral efforts at and also a ruler by which to measure moral progress. Without an objective moral standard of behavior, then “[t]here is no sense in talking of ‘becoming better’ if better means simply ‘what we are becoming’ – it is like congratulating yourself on reaching your destination and defining destination as ‘the place you have reached.’” [12]  

6)    Reasoning over moral issues. [13] When men reason over moral issues, it is assumed there is an objective standard of right and wrong. If there is no objective standard, then reasoning over moral issues is on the same level as one arguing with his friends about the best flavor of ice cream at the local parlor (“I prefer this” and “I don’t like that”). In short, a world where morality is a matter of preference makes it impossible to have meaningful conversations over issues like adultery, sexuality, abortion, immigration, drugs, bullying, stealing, and so on.

7)    Feeling a sense of obligation over moral matters. [14] The words “ought” and “ought not” imply the existence of an objective moral law that mankind recognizes and feels obligated to follow. Virtually all humans would agree that one ought to try to save the life of a drowning child and that one ought not kill innocent people for sheer entertainment. It is also perfectly intelligible to believe that humans are morally obligated to possess (or acquire) traits such as compassion, mercifulness, generosity, and courage. [15]

8)    Making excuses for not behaving appropriately. [16] If one does not believe in an objective standard of behavior, then why should he become anxious to make excuses for how he behaved in a given circumstance? Why doesn’t he just go on with his life without defending himself? After all, a man doesn’t have to defend himself if there is no standard for him to fall short of or altogether break. Lewis maintains, “The truth is, we believe in decency so much – we feel the Rule of Law pressing on us so – that we cannot bear to face the fact that we are breaking it, and consequently we try to shift the responsibility.” [17] 

Although the eight reasons provided above do not cover all of the reasons for believing in objective morality, it is a starting point nonetheless. If any of the reasons above for believing in objective morality are valid, then the moral argument for God’s existence (and Christian theism) has the ability to get off the ground. In fact, if there are any good reasons (in this article or beyond it) for believing in an objective moral standard, then I think God’s existence becomes the best possible explanation for morality since such a standard at the least requires a transcendent, good, and personal source – which sounds a lot like the God of Christian theism.


[1] C. S. Lewis, Mere Christianity (New York, NY: HarperCollins, 2001), 3.

[2] Ibid., 4.

[3] Ibid., 5.

[4] Ibid. In the appendix section of The Abolition of Man, Lewis provides a list that illustrates the points of agreement amongst various civilizations throughout history. See C. S. Lewis, The Abolition of Man (New York, NY: HarperCollins, 2001), 83-101.

[5] Ibid., 6.

[6] Ibid.

[7] Sean McDowell, Ethix: Being Bold in a Whatever World (Nashville, TN: B&H Books, 2006), 45-46.

[8] C. S. Lewis, The Abolition of Man (New York, NY: HarperCollins, 2001), 43, 73. Also see Lewis, Mere Christianity, 13.

[9] Lewis, Mere Christianity, 13-14.

[10] C. S. Lewis, “Evil and God,” in God in the Dock, ed. Walter Hooper (Grand Rapids, MI: Wm. B. Eerdmans, 2014), 3-4.

[11] Even if someone’s goal is to become more immoral, he still needs an objective standard to measure the level of his badness.

[12] Ibid.

[13] C. S. Lewis, Miracles (New York, NY: HarperCollins, 2001), 54.

[14] C. S. Lewis, The Problem of Pain (New York, NY: HarperCollins, 2001), 10.

[15] C. Stephen Evans, God and Moral Obligation (New York, NY: Oxford University Press), 2-3.

[16] Lewis, Mere Christianity, 8.

[17] Ibid.

*About the Author: Stephen S. Jordan currently serves as a high school Bible teacher at Liberty Christian Academy. He is also a Bible teacher, curriculum developer, and curriculum editor at Liberty University Online Academy, as well as a PhD student at Liberty University. He and his wife, along with their two children and German shepherd, reside in Goode, Virginia. This article first appeared on January 18, 2019 at moral