Were Women Deacons?
By Dr. John Piper
Probably yes. There are four observations that incline me to think that this office was held by both men and women.
1. The Greek word for deacon can be masculine or feminine in the same form. So the word itself does not settle the issue.
2. In the middle of the qualifications for deacons in 1 Timothy 3:8-13 Paul says, “The women likewise must be serious, not slanderers, but temperate, faithful in all things.” This could be the wives of the deacons, but could also be the women deacons. The latter is suggested by the fact that no reference to women is made in 3:1-7. Since women were not candidates for the eldership in the New Testament (1 Timothy 2:12-13) because of its authoritative function in teaching and oversight, the absence of the reference to women in 1 Timothy 3:1-7 would be expected. But this confirms the probability that the reference to women in 3:11 is to women deacons, not merely to wives of deacons.
3. The deacons were distinguished from the elders in that they were not the governing body in the church nor were they charged with the duty of authoritative teaching. So the role of deacon seems not to involve anything that Paul taught in 1 Timothy 2:12 (or anywhere else) which is inappropriate for women to perform in the church.
4. In Romans 16:1, Phoebe is very probably called a deacon. “I commend to you our sister Phoebe, a deacon(ess) of the church at Cenchreae, that you may receive her in the Lord as befits the saints, and help her in whatever she may require from you, for she has been a helper of many and of myself as well.”
It appears then that the role of deacon is of such a nature that nothing stands in the way of women’s full participation in it. Within the deaconate itself, the way the men and women relate to each other would be guided by the sense of appropriateness, growing out of the Biblical teaching of male and female complementarity.
Qualifications of Deacons (1 Timothy 3:8-13)
3:8 “Deacons likewise must be serious. . .”
Serious, Earnest, Honorable (semnous)
The idea of “serious” by itself seems inadequate. This would be an unsatisfactory translation of Philippians 4:8: “Think on these things . . . whatever is true, whatever is honorable. . .” “Serious” is morally neutral. But this word isn’t. The person should not be flippant, but earnest about life.
3:8 “. . . not double-tongued. . .”
Genuine, Authentic (me dilogous)
“Double-tongued” implies saying one thing to be true here and another thing to be true there, according to what people would think. So it implies a lack of love for truth and a fear of human disapproval and a general instability.
3:8 “. . . not addicted to much wine. . .”
Temperate (me oino pollo prosechontas)
Prosechontas implies “to concern oneself with” or “to give attention to” or “to turn one’s mind toward.” So there should be a freedom from drink, and presumably from all substances that would be harmful if taken too freely.
The picture is of a person under control, not carried along 1) by the opinions of others (genuine, authentic) or 2) by his appetites (temperate) or 3) by levity (serious, honorable).
3:8 “. . . not greedy for gain. . .”
Content with simplicity (me aischrokerdeis)
This word is used in Titus 1:7 of elders and in adverb form of elders in 1 Peter 5:2. It corresponds to aphilargon (not a lover of money) in 1 Timothy 3:3.
It seems to be a fourth dimension of freedom (see “temperate” above for the first three), freedom from the pull of money. Other motives should drive him. There should be a contentment in God and a heavenly mindedness.
3:9 “…having the mystery of the faith in a clean conscience.”
Deep Convictions Concerning The Faith
The issue of conscience does not appear to be the general issue as in 1:5; 4:2; 2 Timothy 1:3; Titus 1:15. But 1:19 is a very close connection: “holding faith and a good conscience.”
It seems that the conscience bears directly on the “faith in good conscience.” This inclines me to think that the issue is the sincerity of the faith. Do the deacons really have faith rooted in their hearts or are there sneaking doubts? Are their consciences clear when they make a public profession of their faith?
3:10 “And let them also be tested first. . .”
The test is not specified, but it is to precede the work as deacons. The test would be two-fold: the life they have lived and the assessment of it by those who know them and by some appropriate body of the church.
This would surely apply to all the leaders including elders and deacons.
I see three usual steps in the testing and selection of leaders.
1. The elders would take responsibility to see that the testing and approval is done in accord with Biblical criteria since they are responsible for the general oversight of the church and for the doctrinal purity of the leadership.
2. They may need to involve representatives of the congregation who have a wider knowledge of some people than they do.
3. The congregation itself would be the final test of approval, as they are the last court of appeal in matters of church discipline (Matthew 18:17; 1 Corinthians 5:4). Therefore, all would be approved by the church as the final step of “testing” and “approval.”
3:10 “. . . then if they prove themselves blameless let them serve as deacons.”
Blameless in the sense that no blame is discovered that has not been settled in a Biblical way. It does not mean perfect, but free from ongoing guilt for some unsettled wrong.
3:11 We will come back to this verse.
3:12 “Let the deacons be the husband of one wife. . .”
One Woman’s Husband
(See section on 1 Timothy 3:2)
3:12 “. . . and let them manage their children and their households well.”
This would seem to imply some measure of administrative ability, but note well, unlike the case with the elders in 3:5, it does not say, “for if a man does not know how to manage his own household, how can he care for God’s church?” General oversight does not appear to be in view as with the “overseers” of 3:1-7.
Rather, the point is probably the general truth that much of a man’s true character and gifts come out in the way he leads his family. Something is significantly wrong if the man appears religious and able at church but has a disorderly home.
Again the home is the proving ground for all fitness for leadership in the church.
3:13 “For those who serve well as deacons gain a good standing for themselves and also great confidence in the faith which is in Christ Jesus.”
This is not a qualification but a promise of what comes with the faithful execution of the diaconate.
A good standing for themselves may mean a respectable place in the Christian community or a safe place in the last Day of Judgment as in 6:19.
And great confidence is the subjective boldness that rises with the faithful performance of duty.
(Now back to 3:11 and the question of the women.)
3:11 “Likewise the women. . .”
Is this a reference to the wives of the deacons or a reference to women who were deaconesses? See pages 56-57 for a slightly fuller treatment of this issue.
In Favor of “Deaconesses”:
The use of “likewise” to introduce the group in the same way the deacons were introduced in verse 8 suggests a new order, namely, deaconesses.
The women are not mentioned in verses 1-7 where overseers are being discussed. If wives are in view, you would expect that they would be. But if women as a distinct order are in view, you would not, because the elders are given responsibilities which Paul says women should not assume. So the absence of women among the overseers and the presence of the women among the deacons suggests an order, not wives.
Phoebe in Romans 16:1-2 appears to be a deaconess.
The deacons are not charged with any duties that in themselves would contradict what Paul says is appropriate for women to do in the church.
In Favor of “Wives”:
You would expect that they would be called “deaconesses” instead of women or wives.
Paul returns to the qualifications of deacons in the next verse, which seems strange if he had begun to discuss a new order.
It seems that the decision will not be made with confidence simply from this text alone but will be made on the basis of the wider considerations of what is appropriate for women to do according to all the New Testament teachings.
3:11 “. . . must be serious. . .”
See above on 3:8, Serious, Earnest, Honorable.
3:11 “. . . no slanderers. . .”
Not Slanderers, Gossips (me diabolous)
A woman who has itchy ears and a loose tongue will not be a good deaconess. Her words must build up. She must keep confidences and not be addicted to scuttlebutt.
3:11 “. . .temperate. . .”
See above on 3:2, Temperate.
3:11 “. . . faithful in all things.”
Honest, Trustworthy, Reliable, Loyal (pistas in pasin)
See above on Titus 1:6, Honest.
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